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United States Patent 
Chan et al.
mil ii in
US005580429A [ii] Patent Number:  Date of Patent:
 METHOD FOR THE DEPOSITION AND
MODIFICATION OF THIN FHJVIS USING A
COMBINATION OF VACUUM ARCS AND
PLASMA IMMERSION ION IMPLANTATION
 Inventors: Chung Chan, Newton; Ryne C. Allen, Framingham; Imad Husein, Boston; Yaunzhong Zhou, Maiden, all of Mass.
 Assignee: Northeastern University, Boston,
 Appl. No.: 475,002
 Filed: Jun. 7, 1995
Related U.S. Application Data
 Continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 225,844, Apr. 11,1994, Pat. No. 5,441,624, which is a continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 934,925, Aug. 25, 1992, Pat. No. 5,302,271.
 Int. CI.6 C23C 14/32
 U.S. CI 204/192.38; 204/298.41;
 Field of Search 204/192.38,298.41;
 References Cited
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Primary Examiner—Aaron Weisstuch
Attorney, Agent, or Firm—Weingarten, Schurgin, Gagnebin
Cathodic/anodic vacuum arc sources with plasma ion implantation deposition system for depositing high quality thin film coatings of complex compounds on a workpiece. Both cathodic and anodic vacuum arc deposition sources, CAVAD, are used to create a plasma vapor from solid materials composing the cathode and/or anode in the cathodic and/or anodic arc respectively. Gases, e.g., hydrogen or nitrogen can be in the deposited films by creating a background plasma of the desired gas using either RF energy, thermionic emission, or consequential ionization of the gas passing through the arc or around the substrate. Application of highly negative pulses to the substrate to extract the ions and provide them with the appropriate energy to interact with the other species in the thin film formation on the substrate to form the desired films. The substrate is bombarded with the ionized particles to form carbon nitrides with variable [N]/[C] ratios, referred to as CNT.
42 Claims, 16 Drawing Sheets