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United States Patent  [li] Patent Number: 4,485,810
Beard  Date of Patent: Dec. 4, 1984
U.S. Patent Dec. 4, 1984 Sheet 1 of 2 4,485,810
U.S. Patent Dec. 4, 1984 Sheet 2 of 2 4,485,810
 SURGICAL CUTTING BLADE
 Inventor: Robert Beard, Placerville, Calif.
 Assignee: Oximetrix, Inc., Mountain View,
 Appl. No.: 201,603
 Filed: Oct. 28, 1980
 Int. C1.3 A61B 17/32
 U.S. CI 128/303.1; 30/140
 Field of Search 128/303.1, 303.17, 303 R,
128/303.12; 30/140, 128
 References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
2,297,103 9/1942 Holm 30/140
2,866,068 12/1958 Bernstein et al 30/140
3,685,518 8/1972 Beuerle et al 128/303.17
4,198,957 4/1980 Cage 128/303.1
FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS 2315075 12/1974 Fed. Rep. of Germany ... 128/303.1
"Chem. Engr. Handbook", McGraw Hill, 5th Ed.,
Properties of Materials, Table 23-5.
Primary Examiner—Benjamin R. Padgett
Assistant Examiner—T. J. Wallen
Attorney, Agent, or Firm—Robert S. Kelly
The cutting instrument of this invention is adapted to be heated to a predetermined temperature range and includes a steel substrate having a cutting edge, a copper composition having a yield strength of at least 25,000 p.s.i. laminated to the steel substrate and an electrical heater means secured to the copper composition laminate. The cutting edge of the cutting instrument and at least a part of the copper composition and heater means may be coated with a non-stick composition in order to prevent the cutting instrument from sticking to the subject upon which the cutting operation is performed with the cutting instrument.
5 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures
SURGICAL CUTTING BLADE
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The control of bleeding during surgery accounts for 5 a major portion of the total time involved in a surgical operation. When tissue is incised, the attendant bleeding obscures the surgeon's vision, reduces his surgical precision and often dictates slow and elaborate procedures in surgical operation. Typically, each bleeding vessel must 10 be grasped in a surgical clamp in order to stop the flow of blood and the tissue and vessel within each clamp are then tied with pieces of fine thread. Such ligated masses of tissue subsequently die and decompose thus tending to retard healing and provide a possible site for infec- 15 tion. A substantial amount of effort with regard to the heating of a cutting instrument so as to provide simultaneous hemostatis has been conducted by Robert F. Shaw and patents related to such efforts include U.S. Pat. No. Re 29,088 which issued on Jan. 11, 1977, U.S. 20 Pat. No. Re 30,190 which issued on Jan. 15, 1980, U.S. Pat. No. 4,089,836 which issued on May 16, 1978, U.S. Pat. No. 4,091,813 which issued on May 30, 1978, U.S. Pat. No. 4,185,632 which issued on Jan. 29, 1980, and U.S. Pat. No. 4,207,896 which issued on June 17, 1980. 25
DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIG. 1 is a pictorial view illustrating the subject matter of this invention;
FIG. 2 is a partial pictorial view illustrating the sub- 30 ject matter of this invention;
FIGS. 3 and 4 are cross-section views taken about 3—3 and of FIG. 2.
DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED 35
Referring now to FIG. 1 of the drawings, there is shown a cutting instrument 1 including a steel substrate 3. A copper composition 5 having a yield strength of at least 25,000 p.s.i. is laminated to the steel substrate 3. 40 The copper composition 5 is preferably an alumina dispersion strengthened copper wherein the alumina present in the copper composition is from between about 0.1 and about 0.5 percent by weight of the total composition. Preferably the alumina-copper dispersion 45 is of the type referred to and sold commercially as Glidcop by the Glidden Company. The steel substrate 3 and copper composition laminate 5 should be capable of experiencing a heat treatment at least to a temperature of approximately 1500 degrees F. 50
A heater means 7, preferably formed of copper in a strip having a generally tortuous or serpertine shape substantially uniformly distributed along the copper composition 5, is secured to the copper composition laminate 5 by means of an adhesive 35 that includes an 55 electrically insulative and thermally conductive filler material 13 admixed with a material selected from a group consisting of polyimide, polyamide, phenolic, silicone, acrylic and epoxy resins 15. The electrically insulative properties of the filler material 13 is prefera- 60 bly at least 100 K ohms while the thermal conductivity properties of the filler material 13 is preferably defined as having a heat flow per unit of temperature of a least 0.1 watts per degree centigrade. In one embodiment, the diameter of such filler material 13 is such that the mate- 65 rial spans the distance between the heater means 7 and the copper composition 5 thereby serving as the spacing means for the heater means and providing the optimum
thermal transfer between the heater means 7 and the copper composition 5.
The steel substrate 3 includes a cutting edge 17 which is preferably coated with a non-stick means 9 in order to preclude the cutting edge from sticking to a subject upon which a cutting operation is performed. Further, at least a portion of the balance of the cutting instrument is also similarly coated by non-stick means 11. Preferably the non-stick means 9 applied to the cutting edge 17 is a dispersion of fluorocarbon particles within a silicone adhesive binder while the non-stick means applied to the balance of the cutting instrument is a fluorocarbon composition. The non-stick means 9 and 11 are preferably a form of polytetrafluoroethylene and chosen from the group consisting of tetrafluoroethylene, polyfluorinated alcoxy abd fluoroinated ethylene polymer.
At least a pair of electrical leads 19 and 21 are provided for incoming and outgoing current flow to the heater means 7. Such electrical leads 19 and 21 include non-insulated portions 23 and 25 and insulated portions 27 and 29, respectively, connecting the heater means 7 to an external power source 31. In a preferred embodiment, a electrically insulative polyimide 33 backing material is provided upon which the heater 7 and adhesive 35 may be disposed prior to being secured to the copper composition 5.
The structure of the present invention having been described, its method of operation will now be discussed. Upon application of electrical current from the external power source 31 through the pair of electrical leads 19 and 21 heater means 7 is heated and heat is thermally conducted through the adhesive 35 to the copper composition 5 and the steel substrate 3 with its cutting edge 17. Such heat transfer from the heater means 7 to the steel substrate 3 is carried out in accordance with the heat transfer equation q=K a(delta r/delta x) where q is the amount of heat transferred, K is the thermal heat transfer coefficient, a is the area through which the heat is transferred, delta T is the differential temperature and delta x is the thickness of the material through which the heat is transferred.
In a preferred embodiment, and as seen for example in FIG. 4, the thickness of the steel substrate 3 is approximately 6 mils and the thickness of the copper composition 5 is approximately 6 mils. Further, the thickness of the heater means 7 is preferably approximately 0.4 mils, while the thickness of the adhesive 35, i.e., the spacing between the heater means and the copper laminate 5, is preferably about 0.4 mils. The backing material 37 is preferably approximately 2 mils in thickness. Due to the physical parameters regarding heat transfer, the cutting instrument of the present invention allows for the cutting instrument 1 to be maintained at a substantially constant temperature within a predetermined range of preferably between about 100 degrees C. and about 300 degrees C.
As can be seen from FIG. 2, the heater means 7 covers substantially the entire area of one of the flat face portions of the blade adjacent the cutting edge thereby providing continuous heating to the entire cutting portion of the blade. As also can be seen from FIG. 2 and FIG. 4, the width of the copper strip heater means 7 is very small as compared to the width of the blade (both widths being measured in the direction of the section line 4—4).
What is claimed is: