SYSTEM FOR IMAGE MANIPULATION AND ANIMATION USING EMBEDDED CONSTRAINT GRAPHICS
 Inventors: J. Thomas Ngo, Sunnyvale; Bruce Randall Donald, Palo Alto, both of Calif.
 Assignee: Interval Research Corporation, Palo Alto, Calif.
 Appl. No.: 08/693,028  Filed: Aug. 6, 1996
 Int. CI.6 G06F 15/00
 U.S. CI 345/473
 Field of Search 345/473, 474,
345/475, 440, 441
 References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
5,261,041 11/1993 Susman 395/152
5.390,294 2/1995 Takeuchi 395/155
5,416,899 5/1995 Poggio et al 395/155
FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS
0520099 Al 12/1992 European Pat. Off. .
Auslander, Joel et al, "Further Experience with ControllerBased Automatic Motion Synthesis for Articulated Figures", ACM Transactions on Graphics, vol. 14, No. 4, Oct. 1995, pp. 311-336.
A constraint-based graphics system employs different examples of an image to define the constraints of the system. The examples are grouped into subsets which can be interpolated with one another, according to a user-specified input that determines the relative proportion of each example image. An animation can be created by defining a sequence of such interpolated images. Alternatively, a user can directly manipulate observable components of an image to define a particular state for the image. Automatic transformations are defined to provide registration of an image within an overall scene by shifting the frame of reference for an image so that unnatural movements do not occur as the animation proceeds through a sequence of states. The structure of the system permits an animation to be divided into distinct components that can be combined with complementary components of other animations, to provide new results. These components include a clip motion which defines a sequence of states, a clip character which applies the clip motion to a particular image configuration, and clip art.
91 Claims, 12 Drawing Sheets