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United States Patent m
Morcom et al.
[li] Patent Number: 4,471,376  Date of Patent: Sep. 11, 1984
 AMORPHOUS DEVICES AND
INTERCONNECT SYSTEM AND METHOD
 Inventors: William R. Morcom, Melbourne
Beach, Fla.; Glenn M. Friedman, San
 Assignee: Harris Corporation, Melbourne, Fla.
 Appl. No.: 224,931
 Filed: Jan. 14,1981
 Int. CI.3 H01L 23/48; H01L 45/00
 U.S. CI 357/71; 357/2;
 Field of Search 357/2, 67, 71
 References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
3,409,809 11/1968 Diehl 357/71
3,675,090 7/1972 Neale 357/71
3,699,543 10/1972 Neale 357/2
3,946,426 3/1976 Sanders 357/71
4,151,545 4/1979 Schnepf 357/71
IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin, vol. 15, No. 2, Jul. 1972, pp. 577-579.
Primary Examiner—Martin H. Edlow
Assistant Examiner—J. L. Badgett
Attorney, Agent, or Firm—Barnes & Thornburg
An amorphous semiconductor device on a silicon substrate having a first level contact and interconnect of aluminum and coextensive layer of molybdenum and a second level contact and interconnect of molybdenum and coextensive layer of aluminum. Contacts to the amorphous device are by the two molybdenum layers and the contact of the second level contacts to the substrate is through the first level contacts.
The method of fabrication includes forming a first aluminum layer on and through contact openings in a first insulating layer and a first layer of molybdenum on the aluminum, coetching these layers to form first level contacts and interconnects forming a second layer of insulating material, forming a layer of amorphous semiconductor material through an opening in the second insulating layer; forming a second layer of molybdenum over the substrate and through contact openings in the second insulating layer and a second layer of aluminum on the second layer of molybdenum, and coetching the second layers of molybdenum and aluminum to form second level contacts and interconnects.
16 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures
AMORPHOUS DEVICES AND INTERCONNECT
SYSTEM AND METHOD OF FABRICATION
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 5
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates generally to amorphous semiconductor devices and more specifically to contacts and interconnects for amorphous semiconductor devices formed on silicon substrates. 10
2. Description of the Prior Art
One of the concerns in amorphous semiconductor devices, be they threshold or memory devices, has been the proper selection of the contact materials. It it well known that these materials must be carefully selected to 15 avoid contamination of the amorphous semiconductor material. Although aluminum is a well known conductor used especially with silicon substrates because of its low resistance and high adherence to silicon, it is generally unsatisfactory as a contact to amorphous semicon- 20 ductor layers since the aluminum migrates into the amorphous material when current flows from the aluminum into the amorphous material. The problem of aluminum migration is overcome by using refractory materials such as molybdenum to isolate the aluminum from 25 the amorphous material.
Although molybdenum provides a good isolating medium layer between the aluminum and the semiconductor material, molybdenum does not make ohmic contact with the silicon substrates. Prior devices gener- 30 ally used a thin layer of palladium silicide between the molybdenum and the silicon substrate to provide an ohmic contact. Molybdenum interconnects between the contact areas of the systems have proved to be unsatisfactory since they have such high sheet resistance. The 35 high resistance has prevented the use of amorphous semiconductor devices at high speeds.
Thus, there exists a need for a contact interconnect system for amorphous semiconductor devices on a silicon substrate having low resistance, providing good 40 adherence to the silicon substrate, preventing migration of the contacts into the amorphous layer, and providing ohmic contact to the silicon substrate.
An object of the present invention is to provide a contact and interconnect system for amorphous semiconductor devices allowing an operating time of 25 to 100 nanoseconds.
Another object of the invention is to provide an inter- 50 connect system incorporating the use of aluminum and molybdenum interconnects and contact areas so as to accomplish relatively low resistance interconnects and prevent migration of the aluminum into the amorphous semiconductor material. 55
A further object of the invention is to provide an amorphous semiconductor device and interconnect system which prevents migration of aluminum interconnect and contact into the amorphous semiconductor layer while providing ohmic contacts to a silicon sub- 60 strate.
Still a further object of the present invention is to provide a method of fabricating amorphous semiconductor devices on a silicon substrate having a low resistance interconnect system formed by a minimum of 65 steps.
The present invention overcomes the problem of prior art contacts and interconnects of amorphous semi
conductor devices built on silicon substrates by using a layer of aluminum and a coextensive layer of molybdenum as a first level contact and interconnect and a second layer of molybdenum and a coextensive layer of aluminum as a second level contact and interconnect. The first layer of aluminum contacts the substrate and is isolated from the amorphous device by the first layer of molybdenum. The layer of molybdenum and aluminum form discrete contact areas to the substrate and interconnects between discrete areas of the substrate over a first layer of insulating material. A second layer of molybdenum and aluminum forms a second level interconnect over a second layer of insulating material separating the first and second levels of interconnects and is connected to the substrate through the first level contacts of the first layer of aluminum and molybdenum. The coexistivity of the aluminum and molybdenum layers in the first and in the second level interconnect system reduces the resistivity of the total interconnect layer as compared to an all molybdenum layer, while allowing the molybdenum layer to isolate the aluminum from the amorphous material.
The method of fabricating the contact interconnects system of the present invention begins with forming apertures in a first layer of insulating material to expose contact areas to the silicon substrate. A first layer of aluminum is formed on the substrate and a layer of molybdenum is formed on the layer of aluminum. These two layers are then masked and coetched to form coextensive first level discrete contacts and interconnects between some of the discrete contacts. A second layer of insulating material is formed over the substrate and openings are formed therein to expose first level contacts. A layer of amorphous semiconductor material is formed over the second insulating layer and through the openings. The amorphous semiconductor material is masked and etched to form amorphous semiconductor elements on selected first level contacts. A second layer of molybdenum is formed over the substrate and a layer of aluminum if formed over the molybdenum layer. These two layers are then masked and coetched to form coextensive second level contacts and coextensive second level interconnects over the second layer of insulation to the first level contacts, and to the amorphous semiconductor material.
Other objects, advantages and novel features will become apparent from the following detailed description of the invention when considered in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view of an amorphous semiconductor device of the prior art.
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of an amorphous semiconductor device on a silicon substrate incorporating the principles of the present invention.
FIGS. 3 and 4 are cross-sectional views illustrating the fabrication steps according to the principles of the present invention to fabricate the device of FIG. 2.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED
An example of the prior art system using palladium silicide and molybdenum is illustrated in FIG. 1. The integrated circuit includes a substrate 10 having a collector region 12 formed between lateral isolation barriers 14. Base region 16 is formed in collector region 12
and an emitter region 18 is formed in base region 16. A high impurity collector contact region 20 is formed in collector 12. A flesh or thin layer of palladium silicide or platinum silicide 22 is formed on the contact areas to collector contact 20, base 16, emitter 18 and isolation 5 barrier 14 through a first insulating layer 24. A first level contact and interconnect further includes a molybdenum layer 26 formed on the layers 22. The palladium silicide or platinum silicide allows the molybdenum 26 to form an ohmic contact with the silicon substrate. A 10 second insulating layer 28 lies over the first insulating layer and first level contacts and interconnects. An amorphous semiconductor layer 30 is applied over the base contact. A second layer 32 of molybdenum is then applied over the substrate and a second layer 34 of ^ aluminum is then formed over the molybdenum layer 32. The aluminum layer 34 is isolated from the amorphous semiconductor layer 30 by the molybdenum layer 32.
As illustrated in FIG. 1, the first molybdenum layer 26 forms an interconnect between the emitter 18 and the isolation barrier 14. The amorphous layer 30 is contacted on the bottom and top by molybdenum layers 26 and 32, respectively, wherein the top layer 32 isolates 2J the aluminum interconnect 34 from the amorphous layer 30 and a palladium silicide platinum silicide layer 22 allows ohmic contact between the bottom electrode and the substrate. Collector contact region 20 includes an aluminum second level interconnect 34 connected to the substrate through two molybdenum layers 32 and 26 and a palladium silicide or platinum silicide layer 22. As discussed above, the use of molybdenum as an interconnect, as for example, the first level interconnect between the emitter 18 and the isolation barrier 14, pro- 35 vides a high resistance interconnect, and thus, increases the time required to switch the state or operate the amorphous semiconductor layer 30. The palladium silicide layer 22 is formed by applying palladium, sintering to form palladium silicide in the exposed contact 40 area, and etching to remove the pure palladium. This formation is separate from the application and delineation of molybdenum layer 26 and increases the number of steps and consequently, the costs of the manufacturing. 45
To illustrate the concept of the present invention, the integrated circuit and interconnect of FIG. 1 has been modified as illustrated in FIG. 2 and includes an amorphous semiconductor device 36, first level interconnect 38 and a second level interconnect 40. The amorphous 50 dfevice 36 has a bottom or first level contact including an aluminum layer 42 and a refractory conductive material layer 44, an amorphous semiconductor layer 30, and a top or second level contact including a refractory conductive material layer 46 and a coextensive low 55 resistance conductive layer 48. First level interconnect 38 between emitter region 18 and isolation barrier 14 includes a first contact and interconnect layer of aluminum 42 contacting the substrate and traversing the first insulating layer 24 and a second coextensive layer 44 of 60 a refractory conductive material. The second level interconnect 40 between collector contact 20 and another portion of the intergrated circuit has a first level contact including a layer of aluminum 42 and a coextensive layer of refractory material 44, and a second level 65 contact and interconnect including a refractory conductive layer 46 traversing the second insulating layer 28, and a coextensive, low resistance conductive layer 48.
The simple transistor-amorphous device and interconnects are one of a plurality of transistor-amorphous device-interconnect combinations forming a memory array. Although the amorphous device is shown connected to the base, it may be connected to the emitter and used in an emitter follower array having a common collector for the array. The metallization of the present invention is applicable to these and other arrays.
Preferably, the first layer 42 is aluminum or silicon doped aluminum having a thickness of between 5000 to 8000 angstroms, the refractory conductive layers 44 and 46 are preferably molybdenum having a thickness in the range of 1000 to 2000 angstroms and 1000 to 2000 angstoms respectively, and the low resistance conductive layer 48 is preferably aluminum having a thickness in the range of 11,000 to 19,000 angstroms. Amorphous semiconductor layer 30 may be any of the known layers which include arsenic telluride and germanium telluride. Although molybdenum is the preferred refractory conductive material separating the aluminum layers 42 and 48 from the amorphous layer 30, other refractory materials may be used. Since the top layer 48 does not contact the semiconductor surface, any low resistance conductor may be used, for example, gold, titaniumplatinum-gold-structure, or copper, instead of the suggested aluminum or silicon doped aluminum.
Structure of FIG. 2 solves the problems of the prior art by using low conductivity metal which has a good adherence to and makes ohmic contact with the silicon substrate, namely, aluminum or silicon doped aluminum, as a first level contact and interconnect while using refractory materials, such as molybdenum, to isolate the aluminum layers from the amorphous semiconductor layer to prevent migration of the aluminum into the amorphous material. By forming the first and second level interconnects of coextensive layers of refractory material and low resistivity conductive layers, the relatively high resistance of the refractory material is reduced by the low resistivity material since they are electrically in parallel. For example, an aluminum layer 42 of a thickness of 8000 angstroms and resistance of 0.055 ohms/square, and a molybdenum layer 44 of a thickness of 1500 angstroms and resistance of 1 ohms/square will produce a parallel combination of 0.052 ohms per square. Similarly, the second level interconnect having a molybdenum layer 46 of a thickness of 1500 angstroms and resistance of 1 ohms/square and an aluminum layer 48 of a thickness of 19,000 angstroms and resistance of 0.025 ohms/square will produce an interconnect 40 having an overall resistance of 0.024 ohms per square. Thus, the contact interconnect system of the present invention as illustrated in FIG. 2 provides ohmic contacts to the silicon substrate, prevents migration of aluminum into the amorphous semiconductor layer, and provides a contact and interconnect of sufficiently low resistance to allow operation of the integrated circuit within the range of 50 nanoseconds.
The process or method of fabricating the integrated circuit of FIG. 2 is illustrated in FIGS. 3 and 4. After the standard fabrication technique to produce the integrated circuit contact openings are provided in the thermally-grown oxide layer 24 exposing contact areas to collector contact 20, base region 16, emitter 18, and an isolation barrier 14. The silicon wafer is then cleaned and placed in a vacuum evaporation apparatus. A layer of aluminum 42 of a thickness of approximately 8000 angstroms is deposited on the wafer by vacuum evaporation. Next, a molybdenum layer 44 of approximately