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1 TREATMENT FOR CEMENT COMPOSITE ARTICLES
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION
This application claims priority from U.S. provisional patent application Ser. No. 60/890,450, filed Feb. 16, 2007, the disclosure of Which is incorporated herein by reference.
Fiber cement composite siding is a high quality building material having many advantages over vinyl, aluminum or Wood siding. One major advantage is the significantly better durability of fiber cement siding. Fiber cement siding typically includes a substrate made from Wood pulp or synthetic fiber mixed With a binder that includes silica, hydraulic cement and Water. The mixture is pressed, cast, molded, rollformed, extruded or otherWise formed into a green board form and dried. One or both major surfaces of the siding may be profiled or embossed to look like a grained or roughsaWn Wood or other building product, or scalloped or cut to resemble shingles. A variety of styles or shapes are available (including lap siding, vertical siding, soflit panels, trim boards, shaped edge shingle replicas and stone or stucco replicas), in a variety of siZes and thicknesses. Fiber cement siding may be prefinished (e.g., primed or painted) at the factory Where it is made and delivered to a job site ready for installation (viZ., attachment) on a building. The resulting prefinished siding product has a primed or painted appearance immediately upon attachment.
Unfortunately, some finishes adhere poorly to fiber cement siding products, especially near edges and comers. An applied finish may initially appear to be properly adhered but may later delaminate or otherWise prematurely fail once the product has been stored, stacked or transported, during product installation, or even after the product has been installed. While builders and homeoWners desire the beauty and convenience of fiber cement siding, premature finish failure can defeat the purpose of manufacturing boards With a preapplied finish.
From the foregoing, it Will be appreciated that What is needed in the art is a pre-finished fiber cement siding product With improved coating adhesion and a reduced tendency to exhibit premature finish failure, especially near edges and corners. Such siding products and methods for preparing the same are disclosed and claimed herein.
The above-described finish adhesion problems may be aggravated for saWn fiber cement products, especially if the saWing process has burnished the product. For example, some conventional sealers Which normally adhere Well to the face of a cement board product may exhibit complete or nearly complete coating failure When applied to a burnished region of some cement board products, especially at edges and corners proximate the burnished region.
The invention provides in one aspect a method for preparing a coated article, Which method comprises providing a cement fiberboard substrate having an outer surface, treating at least a portion of the outer surface With an aqueous solution comprising at least one phosphorus acid or salt of a phosphorus acid, and applying atop at least the treated outer surface one or more of a sealer, primer or topcoat.
The invention provides in another aspect a method for preparing a coated article, Which method comprises providing a cement fiberboard substrate having at least one edge, treating one or more such edges With an aqueous solution comprising at least one phosphorus acid or salt of a phosphorus acid, and applying atop at least the treated edge(s) one or more of a sealer, primer or topcoat.
The invention provides in another aspect a method for preparing a coated article, Which method comprises providing a cement fiberboard substrate having an outer surface, and treating at least a portion of the outer surface With a sealer, primer or topcoat comprising at least one phosphorus acid or salt of a phosphorus acid.
The invention provides in another aspect a method for preparing a coated article, Which method comprises providing a cement fiberboard substrate having at least one edge, treating one or more such edges With one or more of a sealer, primer or topcoat comprising at least one phosphorus acid or salt of a phosphorus acid.
The invention provides in another aspect a coated article comprising a cement fiberboard substrate having at least one edge treated With at least one phosphorus acid or salt of a phosphorus acid and coated With one or more of a sealer, primer or topcoat or treating one or more such edges With one or more of a sealer, primer or topcoat comprising at least one phosphorus acid or salt of a phosphorus acid.
The above summary of the present invention is not intended to describe each disclosed embodiment or every implementation of the present invention. The description that folloWs exemplifies several illustrative embodiments. In various places throughout the application, guidance is provided through lists of examples, Which examples can be used in various combinations. In each instance, the recited list serves only as a representative group and shouldnot be interpreted as an exclusive list.
The details of one or more embodiments of the invention are set forth in the accompanying draWing and the description beloW. Other features, objects, and advantages of the invention Will be apparent from the description and draWing, and from the claims.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING
FIG. 1 is a schematic cross-sectional vieW of a coated fiber cement article.
Like reference symbols in the various figures of the draWing indicate like elements. The elements in the draWing are not to scale.
The recitation of a numerical range using endpoints includes all numbers subsumed Within that range (e.g., 1 to 5 includes 1, 1.5, 2, 2.75, 3, 3.80, 4, 5, etc.).
The terms “a,” “an,” “the,” “at least one,” and “one or more” are used interchangeably. Thus, for example, a coating composition that contains “an” additive means that the coating composition includes “one or more” additives.
The bumishing, e.g., of the edge, can be caused by any abrasive treatment that Will cause surface heating such as saWing, sanding, grinding, and the like.
Terms of orientation such as “atop”, “on”, “uppermost” and the like refer to the relative position of various treatments, layers or coatings in the disclosed articles With respect to a horiZontal cement fiberboard substrate but do not require that the disclosed articles should have any particular orientation in
space during or after their manufacture. A coating “atop” a
cement fiberboard substrate may be adjacent to the substrate or separated from the substrate by one or more intervening treatments, layers or coatings. A treatment or coating “on” a cement fiberboard substrate will unless the context indicates otherwise be adjacent to the substrate.
The term “board” refers to a generally planar component suitable for attachment to a building exterior surface, including lap siding, vertical siding, soflit panels, trim boards, shingle replicas, stone replicas and stucco replicas.
The term “bumish” and “bumishing”, refer to making a surface smooth or glossy. Bumishing can be caused by any treatment that leaves the surface with a smooth or glossy appearance such as sawing, sanding, grinding, polishing and the like.
The phrase “chalk resistant” when used with respect to a coating composition means that if the coating composition is applied to and dried or otherwise hardened on a fiber cement board substrate, the coating composition will have a chalk rating not less than 5 (viz., a rating of 5 to 10), more preferably not less than 6 (viz., a rating of 6 to 10) and most preferably not less than 8 (viz., a rating of 8 to 10) when evaluated according to ASTM D 4214 Test Method A using a 5 year vertical exterior exposure in Florida.
The phrase “color change resistant” when used with respect to a coating composition means that if the coating composition is applied to and dried or otherwise hardened on a fiber cement board substrate, the coating composition will change less than 15 Macadam units, more preferably will change less than 10 Macadam units, and most preferably will change less than 8 Macadam units following a 5 year vertical exterior exposure in Florida.
The term “comprises” and variations thereof does not have a limiting meaning where such term appears in the description or claims. Thus, for example, a composition comprising a wax compound means that the composition includes one or more wax compounds.
The phrase “crack resistant” when used with respect to a coating composition means that if the coating composition is applied to and dried or otherwise hardened on a fiber cement board substrate, the coating composition will have a crack rating not less than 5 (viz., a rating of 5 to 10), more preferably not less than 6 (viz., a rating of 6 to 10) and most preferably not less than 8 (viz., a rating of 8 to 10) when evaluated according to ASTM D 661 using a 5 year vertical exterior exposure in Florida.
The phrase “flake resistant” when used with respect to a coating composition means that if the coating composition is applied to and dried or otherwise hardened on a fiber cement board substrate, the coating composition will maintain a flake rating not less than 5 (viz., a rating of 5 to 10), more preferably not less than 6 (viz., a rating of 6 to 10) and most preferably not less than 8 (viz., a rating of 8 to 10) when evaluated according to ASTM 772 using a 5 year vertical exterior exposure in Florida.
The term “functionalized” when used with respect to a latex polymer means the polymer contains additional pendant reactive chemical moieties other than carboxylic acid groups and linear, branched or ring structures containing (CH,,) groups where x is 0, 1, 2, or 3.
The term “gloss” when used with respect to a coating composition means the 60° measurement obtained when evaluating a smooth region of a fiber cement board major surface according to ASTM D 523.
The term “latex” when used with respect to a polymer means a dispersion or emulsion of polymer particles in water containing one or more secondary dispersing or emulsifying agents (e.g., a surfactant, alkali-soluble polymer or mixtures
thereof) whose presence is required to form the dispersion or emulsion. The secondary dispersing or emulsifying agent is typically separate from the polymer after polymer formation. In some embodiments a reactive dispersing or emulsifying agent may become part of the polymer particles as they are formed.
The phrase “low VOC” when used with respect to a liquid coating composition means that the coating composition contains less than about 10 Wt. % volatile organic compounds, more preferably less than about 7% volatile organic compounds, and most preferably less than about 4% volatile organic compounds based upon the total liquid coating composition weight.
The term “(meth)acrylic acid” includes either or both of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid, and the term “(meth)acrylate” includes either or both of an acrylate and a methacrylate.
The term “multistage” when used with respect to a latex polymer means the polymer was made using discrete charges of two or more monomers or was made using a continuouslyvaried charge of two or more monomers. Usually a multistage latex will not exhibit a single Tg inflection point as measured using DSC. For example, a DSC curve for a multistage latex made using discrete charges of two or more monomers may exhibit two or more Tg inflection points. Also, a DSC curve for a multistage latex made using a continuously-varied charge of two or more monomers may exhibit no Tg inflection points. By way of further explanation, a DSC curve for a single stage latex made using a single monomer charge or a non-varying charge of two monomers may exhibit only a single Tg inflection point. Occasionally when only one Tg inflection point is observed it may be diflicult to determine whether the latex represents a multistage latex. In such cases a lower Tg inflection point may sometimes be detected on closer inspection, or the synthetic scheme used to make the latex may be examined to determine whether or not a multistage latex would be expected to be produced.
The terms “preferred” and “preferably” refer to embodiments of the invention that may afford certain benefits, under certain circumstances. However, other embodiments may also be preferred, under the same or other circumstances. Furthermore, the recitation of one or more preferred embodiments does not imply that other embodiments are not useful, and is not intended to exclude other embodiments from the scope of the invention.
The coating systems described herein may be used in place of or in addition to coatings that may previously have been characterized as “sealers,” “primers” or “topcoats.” However, the disclosed coating systems may not fit neatly into any category per se and such terms should not be limiting. With that caveat in mind, the term “sealer” refers to a composition which may be applied on a bare (viz., uncoated) cement fiberboard substrate and dried or otherwise hardened to provide a coated surface having reduced porosity; the term “primer” refers to a composition which may be applied atop a cement fiberboard substrate and dried or otherwise hardened to provide a coated surface having improved ability to retain a subsequently-applied dried or hardened topcoat; and the term “topcoat” refers to a composition which when dried or otherwise hardened provides a decorative or protective outermost finish layer atop a fiber cement board which is or will be attached to a building exterior. By way of further explanation, such topcoats include paints, stains or sealers capable of withstanding extended outdoor exposure (e.g., exposure equivalent to one year of vertical south-facing Florida sunlight) without visually objectionable deteriora
tion, but do not include sealers or primers that would not withstand extended outdoor exposure if left uncoated with a topcoat.
The terms “treating” and “treated” refer to the application of an acid or salt solution to an edge or surface of a cement fiberboard substrate such that after the solution has dried, a locally elevated concentration of the acid, salt or reaction byproduct thereof with the cement fiberboard substrate may be detected at the treated edge or surface. The thus-treated edge or surface may accordingly be distinguished from a cement fiberboard substrate that may contain nominal amounts of an acid or salt distributed evenly throughout the fiberboard binder, and from a cement fiberboard substrate bearing a coating that may contain nominal amounts of an acid or salt distributed evenly throughout the coating.
The term “unattached” when used with respect to a board means that the board has not been fastened (e.g., nailed, screwed or glued) to a building.
The term “water-dispersible” when used with respect to a polymer means a polymer which is capable of being combined by itself With water, without requiring the use of a secondary dispersing or emulsifying agent, to obtain an aqueous dispersion or emulsion of polymer particles having at least a one month shelf stability at normal storage temperatures.
The phase “weather resistant” when used with respect to a coating composition means that the coating composition is at least one or more of (and more preferably at least two or more of, yet more preferably at least three or more of and most preferably all of) chalk resistant, color change resistant, crack resistant or flake resistant when exposed outdoors.
Referring to FIG. 1, a coated article 10 of the present invention is shown in schematic cross-sectional view. Article 10 includes a cement fiberboard substrate 12. The first major surface 14 of substrate 12 may be embossed with small peaks or ridges 16 and valleys 18, e.g., so as to resemble roughsawn wood. Major surface 14 may have a variety of other surface configurations, and may resemble a variety of building materials other than roughsawn wood. A sealer layer or layers 20 of the disclosed coating system lies atop and partially penetrates surface 14, and desirably is applied to article 10 at the location where article 10 is manufactured. Sealer 20 provides a firmly-adhered base layer upon which one or more layers of topcoat 22 may be formed, and helps to reduce the amount of topcoat 22 that might otherwise be absorbed into substrate 12. Topcoat 22 desirably is both decorative and weather-resistant, and may be applied to article 10 at the location where article 10 is manufactured or after article 10 has been attached to a building or other surface. Article 10 also includes at least one edge such as edge 24 between first major surface 14 and a side surface of article 10 such as side surface 26. It will be understood by persons having ordinary skill in the art that edge 24 may have a sharp or somewhat rounded configuration but will in any event represent a transition region of relatively high curvature between major surface 14 and side surface 26. Persons having ordinary skill in the art will understand that article 10 may have elongated and generally parallel side surfaces intersected by shorter end surfaces, and that these side and end surfaces may be largely hidden when article 10 is installed, e.g., on a building. Persons having ordinary skill in the art will also understand that article 10 may have fewer or other layers than are shown in FIG. 1, and that in the interest of brevity these and other variations need not be separately shown in the Drawing. For example, in one exemplary embodiment the substrate is coated with a sealer layer and one or more topcoat layers. In another exemplary embodiment the substrate is coated with a primer layer and
one or more topcoat layers. In yet another exemplary embodiment, the substrate is coated with a sealer layer, a primer layer and one or more topcoat layers. In yet another embodiment, the substrate is coated with a single layer of sealer, primer or topcoat. Preferably the various layers are selected to provide a coating system that has good adhesion to the substrate and between adjacent layers of the system.
It can be diflicult to obtain adequate adhesion of coatings such as sealer 20 or topcoat 22 to edge 24 or to corners (not shown in FIG. 1) where two edges such as edge 24 meet. This difliculty can be aggravated when applying coatings to sawn fiber cement products, especially if the sawing process has burnished the product. The disclosed process can appreciably improve coating adhesion at such burnished regions and at edges and comers proximate the burnished regions. In another embodiment, the disclosed process can also improve coating adhesion on the major surface or sides of a cement fiberboard substrate. In the disclosed process, at least one edge such as edge 24 (and desirably all such edges, any corners where such edges meet, and yet more desirably the sides and one or both major faces) of the cement fiberboard substrate such as substrate 12 is or are treated with an aqueous solution containing a phosphorus acid, a salt of a phosphorus acid or mixture thereof. The applied solution preferably is at least partially dried and more preferably is dried sufficiently so that substrate 12 no longer has a wet appearance. One or more of a sealer, primer or topcoat is applied atop at least the treated region and desirably atop the sides and one or both major faces of substrate 12. The treatment may conveniently be applied to substrate 12 at the location where article 10 is manufactured or may be applied after article 10 has been attached to a building or other surface. When applied at a manufacturing location, the treatment may also be applied before or after or both before and after the article is subjected to drying (e.g., oven drying) to remove water from the binder. Normally it will be most convenient to apply the treatment after a board has been formed and before it is dried to remove water from the binder, as the drying step will also remove water from the treatment solution. The treatment may be applied using any convenient method including brushing (e.g., using a brush coater), direct roll coating, reverse roll coating, flood coating, vacuum coating, curtain coating and spraying. The various techniques each offer a unique set of advantages and disadvantages depending upon the substrate profile, morphology and tolerable application efficiencies. The treatment may be applied only to burnished regions and at least one edge proximate the burnished region (e.g., over the burnished region and about 100, 50 or 25 mm beyond that region past an edge and into an unburnished area); to all edges, sides and ends of the substrate; or to all edges, sides and ends and to at least one and if desired both major face(s) of the substrate. The concentration of acid or salt in the treatment solution may vary depending on the chosen acid or salt, and may be determined or adjusted empirically using the tape adhesion test described below. There may be an optimal concentration range below and above which reduced topcoat adhesion may be observed. For example, concentrations of about 1 to about 86, about 2 to about 75, about 5 to about 60, about 8 to about 40, or about 10 to about 30 Wt. % acid or salt in water may be employed, based on the total weight of the solution. In one embodiment, the amount of acid or salt in the treatment solution is from about 1 to about 30 weight % based on the total weight of the solution.
A variety of cement fiberboard substrates may be employed in the present invention. Such substrates will usually include a composite of fibers (e.g., wood pulp, glass or polymeric fibers) and a binder that includes water, silica and
hydraulic cement (e.g., Portland cement). The substrates can be made using methods such as extrusion, the Hatschek method, or other methods knoWn in the art. See, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,219,467, 3,781,396, 6,030,447, 6,346,146, 6,506,248, 6,635,735, 6,893,751 and 6,941,720; U.S. Patent Application Nos. 2005/0208285 A1 and 2006/0288909 A1; Australian PatentApplication Nos. 198060655A1 and 2005100347; and International Patent Application Nos. WO 98/45222 A1 and WO 01/68547 A1. The uncoated substrate surface typically contains a plurality of pores With micron- or submicron-scale cross-sectional dimensions. A variety of suitable fiber cement substrates are commercially available. For example, several preferred fiber cement siding products are available from James Hardie Building Products Inc. of MissionViejo, Calif., including those sold as HARDIEHOMETM siding, HARDIPANELTM vertical siding, HARDIPLANKTM lap siding, HARDIESOFFITTM panels, HARDITRIMTM planks and HARDISHINGLETM siding. These products are available With an extended Warranty, and are said to resist moisture damage, to require only loW maintenance, to not crack, rot or delaminate, to resist damage from extended exposure to humidity, rain, snoW, salt air and termites, to be non-combustible, and to offer the Warmth of Wood and the durability of fiber cement. Other suitable fiber cement siding substrates include AQUAPANELTM cement board products from Knauf USG Systems GmbH & Co. KG of Iserlohn, Germany, CEMPLANKTM, CEMPANELTM and CEMTRIMTM cement board products from Cemplank of Mission Viejo, Calif.; WEATHERBOARDSTM cement board products from CertainTeed Corporation of Valley Forge, Pa.; MAXITLETM, MAXISHAKETM AND MAXISLATETM cement board products from MaxiTile Inc. of Carson, Calif.; BRESTONETM, CINDERSTONETM, LEDGESTONETM, NEWPORT BRICKTM, SIERRA PREMIUMTM and VINTAGE BRICKTM cement board products from Nichiha U.S.A., Inc. of Norcross, Ga., EVERNICETM cement board products from Zhangjiagang Evemice Building Materials Co., Ltd. of China and E BOARDTM cement board products from Everest Industries Ltd. of India.
A variety of phosphorus acids and salts of phosphorus acids may be employed in the present invention. Representative phosphorus acids include phosphoric acid (H3PO4, CAS RN 7664-38-2), phosphonic acid (H3PO3, CAS RN 1359836-2), phosphinic acid (H3PO2, CAS RN 6303-21-5) and hypophosphoric acid (HZPO3, CAS RN 7803-60-3). Representative phosphorus acid salts include ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4, CAS RN 7722-76-1), diammonium hydrogen phosphate ((NH4)2HPO4, CAS RN 7783-280), calcium dihydrogen phosphate (Ca(H2PO4)2, CAS RN 7758-23-8), calcium monohydrogen phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO4.2H2O, CAS RN 7789-77-7), calcium phosphate tribasic (Ca3(PO4)2.H2O, CAS RN 7758-87-4), ferric phosphate (FePO4, CAS RN 10045-86-0), lithium orthophosphate (Li3PO4, CAS RN 10377-52-3), magnesium ammonium phosphate hydrate ((NH4)MgPO4, CAS RN 7785-21-9), magnesium hydrogen phosphate trihydrate (MgHPO4.3H2O, CAS RN 7757-86-0), potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4, CAS RN 7778-77-0), dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (KZHPO4, CAS RN 7758-11-4), dipotassium hydrogen phosphate trihydrate (K2HPO4.3H2O, CAS RN 16788-57-1), potassium orthophosphate (K3PO4, CAS RN 7778-53-2), potassium diphosphate (K4P2O7, CAS RN 7320-34-5), sodium dihydrogen phosphate (N aH2PO4, CAS RN 7558-807), sodium phosphate monobasic monohydrate (NaH2PO4.H2O, CAS RN 10049-21-5), disodium hydrogen phosphate (Na2HPO4, CAS RN 7558-79-4), disodium phosphate dibasic dodecahydrate (Na2HPO4.12H2O, CAS RN
10039-32-4), disodium phosphate dibasic heptahydrate (Na2HPO4.7H2O, CAS RN 7782-85-6), trisodium phosphate (Na3PO4, CAS RN 7601-54-9), sodium phosphate tribasic dodecahydrate (Na3PO4.12H2O, CAS RN 10101-89-0), sodium metaphosphate (N aPO3, CAS RN 10361-03 -2), disodium pytophosphate (Na2H2P2O7, CAS RN 7758-16-9), tetrasodium pyrophosphate (Na4O7P2, CAS RN 7722-88-5), sodium trimetaphosphate (Na3P3O9, CAS RN 7785-84-4), sodium tripolyphosphate (Na5OlOP3, CAS RN 13573-18-7), hexasodium tetraphosphate (Na6O1 3P4, CAS RN 14986-846) and sodium polymetaphosphate (CAS RN 50813-16-6). Mixtures of acids, salts or salts and acids may be employed. Acids and salts having appreciable Water solubility (e.g., at least 5 Wt. %, at least 10 Wt. %, at least 20 Wt. %, at least 50 Wt. % or complete Water miscibility) are preferred, as are acids and salts having loW toxicity and loW or moderate tendency to irritate the skin.
A variety of sealers may be employed in the present invention. Representative sealers typically Will be aqueous compositions and include acrylic latex materials (for example, unpigmented or loW pigment level latex solutions containing betWeen about 2 and 50 Wt. % solids) and Water-dispersible materials (for example, unpigmented or loW pigment level Water-dispersible polyurethane solutions containing betWeen about 2 and 50 Wt. % solids). The sealer may for example provide one or more features such as improved adhesion, efliorescence blocking, Water resistance or block resistance. An example of a commercially available sealer is OLYMPICTM FC sealer (available from PPG). Other sealers include those described in U.S. Provisional Application Nos. 60/737, 442 (filed Nov. 15, 2005); 60/764,044, 60/764,103, 60/764, 131 and 60/764,242 (each ofWhich Was filed Jan. 31, 2006); 60/802,185 and 60/802,186 (both filed May 19, 2006); 60/810,739 (filed Jun. 2, 2006) and 60/819,505 (filed Jul. 7, 2006); those described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/560,329, filed Nov. 15, 2006 and published as U.S. 2007/ 0110981 A1; Ser. No. 11/669,131, filed Jan. 30, 2007 and published as U.S. 2007/0259166 A1, Ser. No. 11/669,134, filed Jan. 30, 2007 and published as U.S. 2007/0259188 A1, Ser. No. 11/751,459, filed May 21, 2007 and published as U.S. 2007/0269660 A1, noW U.S. Pat. No. 8,133,588; Ser. No. 11/757,916, filed Jun. 4, 2007 and published as U.S. 2007/0282046 A1, noW U.S. Pat. No. 7,834,086; and Ser. No. 11/775,080, filed Jul. 7, 2007 and published as U.S. 2008/ 0008895 A1; and those described in PCT Application Nos. PCT/U S06/ 60943, filed Nov. 15, 2006 and published as WO/2007/059516; also PCT/US07/02587 published as WO/2007/089807, PCT/U S07/ 61326 published as WO/2007/090131, PCT/U S07/ 61327 published as WO/2007/090132; and PCT/US2007/002802 published as WO/2007/089913 (each of Which Was filed Jan. 30, 2007). The sealer also preferably contains an adhesion-enhancing amount of a phosphorus acid or salt of a phosphorus acid, With salts of phosphorus acids being preferred and sodium or ammonium salts of phosphorus acids being especially preferred. For example, concentrations of about 0.1 to about 20, about 0.2 to about 15, about 0.3 to about 10 Wt. % acid or salt may be employed, based on the total sealer Weight. Addition of such an acid or salt to the sealer may provide a substantial improvement in topcoat adhesion. A recommended thickness for the sealer after it is dried or otherWise hardened is about 0.001 to about 0.3 mm.
A variety of primers may be employed in the present invention. Representative primers include acrylic latex or vinyl primers. The primer may include color pigments, if desired. Preferred primers have a measured 60° gloss value less than 15 gloss units, more preferably less than 10 gloss units, and