METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR A
MODULAR INTEGRATED APPARATUS FOR
HEAT DISSIPATION, PROCESSOR
INTEGRATION, ELECTRICAL INTERFACE,
AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE 5
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates generally to a method and apparatus for integrated circuit packaging. More particularly, the present invention relates to a modular integrated apparatus that combines a computer processor and a heat dissipation device into a field replaceable package for connection to a printed circuit board that minimizes the thermal path and provides EMI attenuation.
DESCRIPTION OF RELATED ART
The following applications are related to the present application: U.S. Patent Application entitled, "A HEAT 20 SINK AND FARADAY CAGE ASSEMBLY FOR A SEMICONDUCTOR MODULE AND A POWER CONVERTER," Ser. No. 08/902,770, naming inventor S. Daniel Cromwell, assigned to the assignee of the present invention and "METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR A 25 MODULAR INTEGRATED APPARATUS FOR MULTIFUNCTION COMPONENTS," naming inventor S. Daniel Cromwell, assigned to the assignee of the present invention.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 30
As the state of development of semiconductor components such as computer processor (CPU) modules has moved to increased levels of integration, the amount of heat these devices generate has significantly increased. For instance, processors handling large quantities of electrical current generate large amounts of heat. If this heat is not adequately dissipated, the increased temperatures produced by the semiconductor components will compromise their function and shorten their length of operation. ^
One approach for solving the growing heat dissipation problem is to attach components which transfer or dissipate heat by means of heat sinks. When the processor and the heat dissipation component are handled separately replacement of either component outside of the manufacturing environ- 45 ment is more difficult.
As heat sinks continue to increase significantly in size and weight to accommodate the increase of heat from processors the risk of damage to the processors due to mechanical overloading is increased. Therefore, there is an increasing 50 need to manage the force that is created by the heat sink on the processor to minimize load conditions that could damage the processor.
When the processor and the heat dissipation component are handled as separate parts of a system, more particularly 55 when the heat dissipation device must be subsequently added to the system, greater thermal and mechanical design margins are required to accommodate attachment of the independent parts. The separate approach to the heat management process increases the complexity of a computer 60 system due to the need for additional system components, and thereby adversely impacts cost, and time to manufacture and repair. There is also a risk of quality problems associated with increased system complexity. Also, treating the processor and the heat sink separately precludes early testing of 65 the processor and the heat sink which cannot be finally tested until they are assembled together.
Factors such as the increased integration levels and electrical connections on the processor increase the need for accurate alignment of the electrical connections on the circuit board. Further, the increased handling, transport, and use of the processor caused by the separate component design may increase the risk of contamination or other damage to the area grid array on a processor.
Further, maintaining separate units for a processor and a heat sink requires significant circuit board space since both modules require separate access during assembly and repair, resulting in large and expensive printed circuit boards. In these systems access to a processor is very difficult due to the size and crowding of the heat sinks on a circuit board.
The processor is an electrical component that requires shielding from electromagnetic (EMI) or radio frequency (RFI) interferences which it may generate. EMI and RFI will be referred to collectively herein as "EMI." Treating the processor and the heat sink as separate modules requires an EMI attenuation solution for the interface between the separate modules.
From the foregoing it will be apparent that there is still a need for a way to package heat sinks that adequately dissipate heat from processors while ensuring proper connection of the area grid array to the circuit board. There is a need for a package that minimizes the thermal path between the processor and the heat sink, and the space required on the circuit board for the processor and the heat sink. Further, there is a need to package heat sinks and processors without damaging the area grid array of the processor and without imposing mechanical stress on the processor that can lead to failure. There is also a need to minimize the number of parts required to provide the features of ease of installation, EMI containment, and heat management and thereby improve the repair and upgrade process, even at a customer site.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present invention may be implemented as a modular integrated apparatus for a computer system that includes a field replaceable apparatus and a receiving apparatus, and may also function as a heat sink and attenuate EMI. The field replaceable apparatus may be installed, removed, and handled outside of the manufacturing environment without interrupting the thermal interface created in the manufacturing environment. Therefore, the present invention minimizes the thermal path between a processor and a heat sink. The field replaceable apparatus includes a processor and a heat sink, and attaches to a receiving apparatus thereby ensuring proper connection of the processor to a circuit board.
In the present invention the field replaceable apparatus may advantageously act as a handle for use in its own replacement. Further, the field replaceable apparatus can be assembled easily which simplifies the process of handling in the field. The field replaceable apparatus minimizes the number of parts required to provide the features of ease of installation, EMI containment, and heat management and thereby improves the repair and upgrade process, even at a customer site. By producing the field replaceable apparatus as one unit in the controlled manufacturing environment, final testing of the assembled heat sink and the processor can be completed in the manufacturing environment.
The field replaceable apparatus may also minimize the length of traces between electronic packages in a computer system by enabling the use of a tall design for the field replaceable apparatus with a minimum circuit board