bon group," and the like, are used to refer to a group having one or more carbon atoms directly attached to the remainder of a molecule and having a hydrocarbon or predominantly hydrocarbon character. Examples include:
(1) purely hydrocarbon groups, that is, aliphatic (e.g., 5 alkyl, alkenyl or alkylene), and alicyclic (e.g., cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl) groups, aromatic groups, and aromatic-, aliphatic-, and alicyclic-substituted aromatic groups, as well as cyclic groups wherein the ring is completed through another portion of the molecule 1° (e.g., two substituents together forming an alicyclic group);
(2) substituted hydrocarbon groups, that is, hydrocarbon groups containing non-hydrocarbon groups which, in the context of this invention, do not alter the predomi- 15 nantly hydrocarbon nature of the group (e.g., halo, hydroxy, alkoxy, mercapto, alkylmercapto, nitro, nitroso, and sulfoxy);
(3) hetero substituted hydrocarbon groups, that is, hydrocarbon groups containing substituents which, while 20 having a predominantly hydrocarbon character, in the context of this invention, contain other than carbon in
a ring or chain otherwise composed of carbon atoms. Heteratoms include sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen. In general, no more than two, and in one embodiment no more than one, non-hydrocarbon substituent is present for every ten carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon group. The term "lower" when used in conjunction with terms such as alkyl, alkenyl, and alkoxy, is intended to describe such groups that contain a total of up to 7 carbon atoms.
The term "water-soluble" refers to materials that are soluble in water to the extent of at least one gram per 100 milliliters of water at 25° C.
The term "fuel-soluble" refers to materials that are soluble
in a normally liquid hydrocarbon fuel (e.g. gasoline or diesel fuel) to the extent of at least one gram per 100 milliliters of fuels at 25° C.
The Process and Apparatus
The inventive process may be conducted on a batch basis or on a continuous basis. The process and apparatus described below relates to a batch process. Referring initially to FIG. 1, the apparatus includes high shear mixer 10, blend tank 12, hydrocarbon fuel inlet 14, chemical additive 4J storage tank 16, water storage tank 18, antifreeze agent storage tank 20, aqueous hydrocarbon fuel storage tank 22, and fuel dispenser 24.
Hydrocarbon fuel enters through hydrocarbon fuel inlet 14 and flows to blend tank 12 through conduit 30. Arranged 50 in series along conduit 30 between inlet 14 and blend tank 12 are isolation valve 32, pressure gauge 34, strainer 36, pump 38, solenoid valve 40, flow meter and totalizer 42, calibration outlet is valve 44, check valve 46 and isolation valve 48. 55
Conduit 50 extends from chemical additive storage tank 16 to blend tank 12 and is adapted for transferring the chemical additive from chemical additive storage tank 16 to blend tank 12. Arranged in series along conduit 50 are isolation valve 52, quick disconnect 54, isolation valve 56, 60 strainer 58,. pump 60, solenoid valve 62, flow meter and totalizer 64, calibration outlet valve 66, check valve 68 and isolation valve 69.
Conduit 70 extends from water storage tank 18 to connecting tee 71 where it connects with conduit 90. Arranged 65 in series along conduit .70 between water storage tank 18 and connecting tee 71 are valves 72 and 73, strainer 74,
pump 76, solenoid valve 78, flow meter and totalizer 80, calibration outlet valve 81, check valve 82, and isolation valve 83. Conduit 84 extends from water inlet 85 to water deionizer 86. Conduit 87 extends from water deionizer 86 to water storage tank 18.
Conduit 90 extends from antifreeze storage tank 20 to connecting tee 71.
Arranged in series along conduit 90 between antifreeze agent storage tank 20 and connecting tee 71 are valves 92 and 94, strainer 96, pump 98, solenoid valve 100, flow meter and totalizer 102, check valve 104 and isolation valve 106.
Conduit 108 extends from connecting tee 71 to connecting tee 110. Conduit 116 extends from blend tank 12 to connecting tee 110. Actuated valve 118 is positioned between blend tank 12 and connecting tee 110 in conduit 116. Conduit 112 extends from connecting tee 110 to the inlet to high shear mixer 10. Check valve 114 is located in conduit 112 between connecting tee 110 and the inlet to high shear mixer 10.
Conduit 120 extends from the outlet to high shear mixer 10 to aqueous hydrocarbon fuel storage tank 22. Arranged in series along conduit 120 are throttling valve 122, connecting tee 124 and actuated valve 126. Conduit 130 extends from connector tee 124 to blend tank 12. Actuated valve 132 is positioned in conduit 130 between connecting tee 124 and blend tank 12. Conduit 130 is provided for recycling the mixture of hydrocarbon fuel-additive mixture and water (and optionally antifreeze agent) back through blend tank 12 and then again through high shear mixer 10.
Conduit 135 extends from aqueous hydrocarbon fuel storage tank 22 to connecting tee 110 and is provided for recycling aqueous hydrocarbon fuel composition from tank 22 back through high shear mixer 10 when it is desired to subject the aqueous hydrocarbon fuel composition to additional high shear mixing. Arranged in series along conduit 135 are isolation valve-136, actuated valve 137 and calibration outlet valve 138. This recycling can be done to avoid undesired settling in tank 22 after the aqueous hydrocarbon fuel composition has been blended.
Conduit 140 extends from aqueous hydrocarbon fuel storage tank 22 to fuel dispenser 24. Dispensing pump 142 is connected to conduit 140 and is positioned between aqueous hydrocarbon fuel storage tank 22 and fuel dispenser 24. Dispensing pump 142 is adapted for pumping the aqueous hydrocarbon fuel composition from aqueous hydrocarbon fuel storage tank 22 to fuel dispenser 24. Users of the aqueous hydrocarbon fuel composition may obtain the fuel from dispenser 24.
A programmable logic controller (PLC), not shown in FIG. 1, is provided for controlling: (i) the transfer of chemical additive from the chemical additive storage tank 16 to blend tank 12; (ii) the transfer of hydrocarbon fuel from hydrocarbon fuel inlet 14 to the blend tank 12; (iii) the transfer of hydrocarbon fuel-additive mixture from the blend tank 12 to high shear mixer 10; (iv) the transfer of water from the water storage tank 18 to high shear mixer 10; (v) the mixing in high shear mixer 10 of the hydrocarbon fuel-additive mixture and the water; and (vi) the transfer of the aqueous hydrocarbon fuel composition from the high shear mixer 10 to the aqueous hydrocarbon fuel storage tank 22. When an antifreeze agent is used, the PLC controls the transfer of the antifreeze agent from the antifreeze agent storage tank 20 to connecting tee 71 where it is mixed with water from conduit 70. When it is desired to recycle the aqueous hydrocarbon fuel composition through mixer 10 for additional high shear mixing, the PLC also controls such