Copyright owners and reporting organizations that represent them submit requests asking us to remove material that allegedly infringes copyright or links to allegedly infringing material.
This data presents information specified in requests we received from copyright owners through our web form to remove search results that link to allegedly infringing content. It is a partial historical record that includes more than 95% of the volume of copyright removal requests that we have received for Search since July 2011. It does not include:
This data represents the information that people provide when they submit copyright removal requests through our web form. People may submit information that is inaccurate or fill out the web form incorrectly, and we're not always able to verify the accuracy of the request. For example, an individual who is submitting the request may report that they are based in one country when they really reside in another. The DMCA process requires a statement that the reporting organization must have a good faith belief that the use of the content in the manner specified is not authorized by the copyright owner, its agent, or the law. The submitter must also affirm under penalty of perjury that it is authorized to represent the owner of the copyright that is allegedly infringed.
At times we may display duplicate entries for copyright owners or reporting organizations. There are a number of reasons why this may be the case. For example, we may receive notices from different parts of a reporting organization, copyright owners and reporting organizations may use multiple ways to spell their names, or reporting organizations may choose to reference member companies as copyright owners in some cases but not others. Reporting organizations and copyright holders may also change their names.
We estimate how much of a domain is specified by copyright removal requests by dividing the number of URLs requested to be removed by the approximate number of indexable pages a domain has. This estimate may be affected by previous removals. The number of indexable pages is an approximation, so we use orders of magnitude (<1%, <10% etc) rather than a more precise measure. Deciding how to measure the number of indexable pages in a domain is challenging task. For example, a calendar with a "next" link embedded in a web page could make that one page look like an almost infinite number of pages, which makes determining an absolute count impossible. Furthermore, the way Google sees a domain may or may not be representative of the actual size of the domain, given the characteristics of web-crawlers such as Googlebot and methods used to control crawling and indexing. We're experimenting with this approach as the basis for our report, and may use different methods in the future.
We removed 97% of search results specified in requests that we received between July and December 2011.
We remove search results that link to infringing content in Search when it is brought to our attention, and we do it quickly. As of December 2012, our average processing time across all removal requests submitted via our web form for Search is approximately 6 hours. However, many different factors can influence the processing time for a particular removal request, including the method of delivery, language, and completeness of the information submitted.
Copyright owners are individuals or entities that claim an exclusive right to the content specified in copyright removal requests. Reporting organizations may act on behalf of copyright owners to ask Google to remove search results that link to allegedly infringing content. They may or may not be the owners of an exclusive right that is allegedly infringed.
When feasible and legal to do so, we try our best to notify users to give them an opportunity to submit a counter-notice in response to copyright removal requests. For Search, it is extremely difficult to provide meaningful notice to webmasters whose pages have been identified in copyright removal requests, because we do not necessarily know their identities or have an effective means of contacting them. If users have registered with our Webmaster Tools as web site owners, we will notify them there. We also share a copy of qualifying copyright removal requests with the public site Lumen, where a webmaster may inspect it as well.
It is our policy to respond to clear and specific notices of alleged copyright infringement. Upon review, we may discover that one or more URLs specified in a copyright removal request clearly did not infringe copyrights. In those cases we will decline to remove those URLs from Search. Reasons we may decline to remove URLs include not having in enough information about why the URL is allegedly infringing; not finding the allegedly infringing content referenced in the request; deducing that the copyright removal process is being used improperly (see next FAQ for examples) or fair use.
From time to time, we may receive inaccurate or unjustified copyright removal requests for search results that clearly do not link to infringing content. An independent, third-party analysis of how frequently improper and abusive removal requests are submitted was conducted in 2006.
Here are a few examples of requests that have been submitted through our copyright removals process that were clearly invalid copyright removal requests.
Some URLs were reviewed as parts of other removal requests and may already have been removed.
If webmasters feel that a link to their site was mistakenly removed due to a request filed against them, webmasters can submit a counter-notification form and Google may reinstate the link pursuant to sections sections 512(g)(2) and (3) of the DMCA.
The DMCA or Digital Millennium Copyright Act is a U.S. law that provides qualifying online service providers like Google with a safe harbor from monetary liability for copyright infringement claims. One of the requirements of these safe harbor provisions is that the service provider remove or disable access to allegedly infringing material upon receiving a request that meets certain requirements. In responding to copyright removal requests, Google complies with the requirements of the DMCA.
It is our policy to respond to clear and specific notices of alleged copyright infringement. The form of notice we specify in our web form is consistent with the DMCA and provides a simple and efficient mechanism for copyright owners from countries around the world.
Lumen is a project of Harvard's Berkman Center for Internet & Society. Lumen works with a variety of international research partners to offer information about the global landscape of Internet takedown requests. Lumen posts and analyzes different kinds of requests to remove material from the Internet, including requests based on copyright claims. Lumen receives these requests from participating companies as well as from individuals. When we are able to do so legally, Google links from our search results to the requests published by Lumen in place of removed content.