Helping businesses save energy in the cloud

The cloud supports many products at a time, so it can more efficiently distribute resources among many users. That means we can do more with less energy — and businesses can too. In 2013, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory published research indicating that moving all office workers in the United States to the cloud could reduce the energy used by information technology by up to 87%.

Related specifically to Google products, by switching to Google Apps, companies have reduced office computing costs, energy use, and carbon emissions by 65-90%. Additionally, businesses that use Gmail have decreased the environmental impact of their email service by up to 98% compared to those that run email on local servers.

Because of our energy efficiency efforts, our cloud is better for the environment. This means businesses that use our cloud-based products are greener too.

Solar fields

How we do it

Our data centers use much less energy than the typical data center. We raise the temperature to 80°F, use outside air for cooling, and build custom servers. We also share detailed performance data to help move the entire industry forward.

Man at data center

Measuring and improving our energy use

We're focused on reducing our energy use while serving the explosive growth of the internet. Most data centers use almost as much non-computing or "overhead" energy (like cooling and power conversion) as they do to power their servers. At Google we've reduced this overhead to only 11%. That way, most of the energy we use powers the machines directly serving Google searches and products. We take detailed measurements to continually push toward doing more with less — serving more users while wasting less energy.

PUE equation

Figure 1: Google Data Center PUE measurement boundaries. The average PUE for all Google Data Centers is 1.11, although we could boast a PUE as low as 1.06 when using narrower boundaries.

We take the most comprehensive approach to measuring Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE)

Our calculations include the performance of our entire fleet of data centers around the world — not just our newest and best facilities. We also continuously measure throughout the year — not just during cooler seasons.

Additionally, we include all sources of overhead in our efficiency metric. We could report much lower numbers if we took the loosest interpretation of the Green Grid's PUE measurement standards. In fact, our best site could boast a PUE of less than 1.06 if we used an interpretation commonly used in the industry. However, we're sticking to a higher standard because we believe it's better to measure and optimize everything on our site, not just part of it. Therefore, we report a comprehensive trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE of 1.11 across all our large-scale data centers (once they reach stable operations), in all seasons, including all sources of overhead.

Google Data Center PUE performance

Our fleet-wide PUE has dropped significantly since we first started reporting our numbers in 2008. The TTM energy-weighted average PUE for all Google data centers is 1.11, making our data centers among the most efficient in the world.

PUE improvement chart

Figure 2: PUE data for all large-scale Google Data Centers

Yearly performance report

    • Fleet wide PUE Quarterly PUE Trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE
      Fleet 1.09 1.11
      Campuses Quarterly PUE Trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE
      Douglas County, Georgia 1.10 1.12
      Lenoir, North Carolina 1.09 1.10
      Berkeley County, South Carolina 1.08 1.11
      Council Bluffs, Iowa 1.12 1.12
      Council Bluffs, Iowa (2nd facility) 1.08 1.09
      Mayes County, Oklahoma 1.08 1.10
      The Dalles, Oregon 1.11 1.12
      The Dalles, Oregon (2nd facility) 1.07 *
      Dublin, Ireland 1.13 1.12
      St. Ghislain, Belgium 1.09 1.09
      Eemshaven, Netherlands 1.09 1.10
      Hamina, Finland 1.09 1.09
      Changhua County, Taiwan 1.11 1.14
      Singapore 1.15 1.17
      Quilicura, Chile 1.10 1.11

      *We report individual campus TTM PUE only for campuses with at least twelve months of data.

      For Q1 2019, TTM PUE was 1.11, equal to last year's value. Quarterly PUE was 1.09, slightly less than last year's 1.10.

      For individual campuses, our lowest TTM PUE was 1.09, in Iowa, Belgium, and Finland. Our lowest quarterly PUE was 1.08, in South Carolina, Iowa, and Oklahoma.

      Our highest TTM PUE was 1.17, in Singapore. Our highest quarterly PUE was 1.15, in Singapore.

    • Fleet wide PUE Quarterly PUE Trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE
      Fleet 1.11 1.11
      Campuses Quarterly PUE Trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE
      Douglas County, Georgia 1.13 1.12
      Lenoir, North Carolina 1.10 1.10
      Berkeley County, South Carolina 1.12 1.11
      Council Bluffs, Iowa 1.11 1.11
      Council Bluffs, Iowa (2nd facility) 1.09 1.09
      Mayes County, Oklahoma 1.11 1.10
      The Dalles, Oregon 1.11 1.12
      The Dalles, Oregon (2nd facility) 1.06 1.11
      Dublin, Ireland 1.13 1.12
      St. Ghislain, Belgium 1.09 1.09
      Eemshaven, Netherlands 1.09 1.10
      Hamina, Finland 1.09 1.09
      Changhua County, Taiwan 1.14 1.13
      Singapore 1.15 1.16
      Quilicura, Chile 1.09 1.10

      For Q2 2019, TTM PUE was 1.11, equal to last year's value. Quarterly PUE was 1.11, slightly less than last year's 1.12.

      For individual campuses, our lowest TTM PUE was 1.09, in Iowa, Belgium, and Finland. Our lowest quarterly PUE was 1.06, in Oregon.

      Our highest TTM PUE was 1.16, in Singapore. Our highest quarterly PUE was 1.15, in Singapore.

    • Fleet wide PUE Quarterly PUE Trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE
      Fleet 1.13 1.11
      Campuses Quarterly PUE Trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE
      Douglas County, Georgia 1.16 1.12
      Lenoir, North Carolina 1.12 1.10
      Berkeley County, South Carolina 1.14 1.11
      Council Bluffs, Iowa 1.14 1.12
      Council Bluffs, Iowa (2nd facility) 1.11 1.09
      Mayes County, Oklahoma 1.15 1.10
      The Dalles, Oregon 1.12 1.11
      The Dalles, Oregon (2nd facility) 1.07 1.11
      Dublin, Ireland 1.13 1.12
      St. Ghislain, Belgium 1.09 1.09
      Eemshaven, Netherlands 1.10 1.09
      Hamina, Finland 1.09 1.09
      Changua County, Taiwan 1.15 1.13
      Singapore 1.15 1.15
      Quilicura, Chile 1.09 1.09

      "For Q3 2019, TTM PUE was 1.11, equal to last year's value. Quarterly PUE was 1.13, equal to last year's value.

      For individual campuses, our lowest TTM PUE was 1.09, in Iowa, Belgium, the Netherlands, Finland, and Chile. Our lowest quarterly PUE was 1.07, in Oregon.

      Our highest TTM PUE was 1.15, in Singapore. Our highest quarterly PUE was 1.16, in Georgia."

    • Fleet wide PUE Quarterly PUE Trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE
      Fleet 1.10 1.11
      Campuses Quarterly PUE Trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE
      Douglas County, Georgia 1.10 1.11
      Lenoir, North Carolina 1.10 1.10
      Berkeley County, South Carolina 1.10 1.12
      Council Bluffs, Iowa 1.14 1.13
      Council Bluffs, Iowa (2nd facility) 1.09 1.10
      Mayes County, Oklahoma 1.08 1.11
      The Dalles, Oregon 1.14 1.14
      Dublin, Ireland 1.11 1.11
      St. Ghislain, Belgium 1.08 1.09
      Eemshaven, Netherlands 1.11 1.11
      Hamina, Finland 1.09 1.09
      Changhua County, Taiwan 1.12 1.14
      Singapore 1.16 1.17
      Quilicura, Chile 1.14 1.14

      For Q1 2018, TTM PUE was 1.11, slightly lower than previous values of 1.12. Quarterly PUE was 1.10, slightly lower than last year's value of 1.11.

      For individual campuses, our lowest TTM PUE was 1.09, in Belgium and Finland. Our lowest quarterly PUE was 1.08, in Belgium and Oklahoma.

      Our highest TTM PUE was 1.17, in Singapore. Our highest quarterly PUE was 1.16, in Singapore.

    • Fleet wide PUE Quarterly PUE Trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE
      Fleet 1.12 1.11
      Campuses Quarterly PUE Trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE
      Douglas County, Georgia 1.12 1.11
      Lenoir, North Carolina 1.11 1.11
      Berkeley County, South Carolina 1.13 1.12
      Council Bluffs, Iowa 1.13 1.14
      Council Bluffs, Iowa (2nd facility) 1.10 1.10
      Mayes County, Oklahoma 1.11 1.11
      The Dalles, Oregon 1.13 1.14
      Dublin, Ireland 1.12 1.11
      St. Ghislain, Belgium 1.08 1.08
      Eemshaven, Netherlands 1.11 1.11
      Hamina, Finland 1.09 1.09
      Changhua County, Taiwan 1.16 1.14
      Singapore 1.20 1.18
      Quilicura, Chile 1.13 1.14

      For Q2 2018, TTM PUE was 1.11, slightly lower than previous values of 1.12. Quarterly PUE was 1.12, slightly higher than last year's value of 1.11.

      For individual campuses, our lowest TTM PUE was 1.08, in Belgium. Our lowest quarterly PUE was 1.08, in Belgium.

      Our highest TTM PUE was 1.18, in Singapore. Our highest quarterly PUE was 1.20, in Singapore.

    • Fleet wide PUE Quarterly PUE Trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE
      Fleet 1.13 1.11
      Campuses Quarterly PUE Trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE
      Douglas County, Georgia 1.16 1.12
      Lenoir, North Carolina 1.13 1.11
      Berkeley County, South Carolina 1.15 1.12
      Council Bluffs, Iowa 1.14 1.14
      Council Bluffs, Iowa (2nd facility) 1.11 1.10
      Mayes County, Oklahoma 1.13 1.11
      The Dalles, Oregon 1.13 1.13
      The Dalles, Oregon (2nd facility) 1.08 *
      Dublin, Ireland 1.11 1.11
      St. Ghislain, Belgium 1.10 1.09
      Eemshaven, Netherlands 1.12 1.11
      Hamina, Finland 1.10 1.09
      Changhua County, Taiwan 1.17 1.15
      Singapore 1.18 1.18
      Quilicura, Chile 1.12 1.13

      For Q3 2018, TTM PUE was 1.11, slightly lower than previous values of 1.12. Quarterly PUE was 1.13, equal to last year's value.

      For individual campuses, our lowest TTM PUE was 1.09, in Belgium and Finland. Our lowest quarterly PUE was 1.08, in The Dalles.

      Our highest TTM PUE was 1.18, in Singapore. Our highest quarterly PUE was 1.18, in Singapore.

    • Fleet wide PUE Quarterly PUE Trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE
      Fleet 1.10 1.11
      Campuses Quarterly PUE Trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE
      Douglas County, Georgia 1.10 1.12
      Lenoir, North Carolina 1.09 1.11
      Berkeley County, South Carolina 1.10 1.12
      Council Bluffs, Iowa 1.11 1.12
      Council Bluffs, Iowa (2nd facility) 1.08 1.09
      Mayes County, Oklahoma 1.08 1.10
      The Dalles, Oregon 1.11 1.13
      The Dalles, Oregon (2nd facility) 1.24 *
      Dublin, Ireland 1.12 1.11
      St. Ghislain, Belgium 1.10 1.09
      Eemshaven, Netherlands 1.10 1.11
      Hamina, Finland 1.09 1.09
      Changhua County, Taiwan 1.12 1.14
      Singapore 1.17 1.18
      Quilicura, Chile 1.10 1.12

      *We report individual campus TTM PUE only for campuses with at least twelve months of data.

      For Q4 2018, TTM PUE was 1.11, equal to last year's value. Quarterly PUE was 1.10, also equal to last year's value.

      For individual campuses, our lowest TTM PUE was 1.09, in Iowa, Belgium, and Finland. Our lowest quarterly PUE was 1.08, in Iowa and Oklahoma.

      Our highest TTM PUE was 1.18, in Singapore. Our highest quarterly PUE was 1.24, in The Dalles' second facility.

    • Fleet wide PUE Quarterly PUE Trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE
      Fleet 1.11 1.12
      Campuses Quarterly PUE Trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE
      Douglas County, Georgia 1.11 1.12
      Lenoir, North Carolina 1.10 1.10
      Berkeley County, South Carolina 1.10 1.12
      Council Bluffs, Iowa 1.10 1.11
      Council Bluffs, Iowa (2nd facility) 1.10 1.11
      Mayes County, Oklahoma 1.11 1.12
      The Dalles, Oregon 1.14 1.13
      Dublin, Ireland 1.12 1.13
      St. Ghislain, Belgium 1.09 1.09
      Eemshaven, Netherlands 1.22 *
      Hamina, Finland 1.10 1.12
      Changhua County, Taiwan 1.12 1.16
      Singapore 1.18 1.19
      Quilicura, Chile 1.14 1.12

      *This is our first report of PUE for the Netherlands campus. We report individual campus TTM PUE only for campuses with at least twelve months of data.

      For Q1 2017, TTM PUE was 1.12, which has remained constant for the past eighteen quarters. Quarterly PUE was 1.11, equal to Q1 of the previous year.

      For individual campuses, our lowest TTM PUE was 1.09, in Belgium. Our lowest quarterly PUE was 1.09, in Belgium.

      Our highest TTM PUE was 1.19, in Singapore. Our highest quarterly PUE was 1.22, in the Netherlands.

    • Fleet wide PUE Quarterly PUE Trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE
      Fleet 1.11 1.12
      Campuses Quarterly PUE Trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE
      Douglas County, Georgia 1.12 1.12
      Lenoir, North Carolina 1.10 1.10
      Berkeley County, South Carolina 1.13 1.12
      Council Bluffs, Iowa 1.11 1.11
      Council Bluffs, Iowa (2nd facility) 1.10 1.11
      Mayes County, Oklahoma 1.12 1.12
      The Dalles, Oregon 1.14 1.13
      Dublin, Ireland 1.12 1.13
      St. Ghislain, Belgium 1.09 1.09
      Eemshaven, Netherlands 1.10 *
      Hamina, Finland 1.09 1.11
      Changhua County, Taiwan 1.15 1.15
      Singapore 1.18 1.19
      Quilicura, Chile 1.14 1.13

      *We report individual campus TTM PUE only for campuses with at least twelve months of data.

      For Q2 2017, TTM PUE was 1.12, which has remained constant for the past nineteen quarters. Quarterly PUE was 1.11, slightly lower than last year’s value of 1.12.

      For individual campuses, our lowest TTM PUE was 1.09, in Belgium. Our lowest quarterly PUE was 1.09, in Belgium and Finland.

      Our highest TTM PUE was 1.19, in Singapore. Our highest quarterly PUE was 1.18, in Singapore.

    • Fleet wide PUE Quarterly PUE Trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE
      Fleet 1.13 1.12
      Campuses Quarterly PUE Trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE
      Douglas County, Georgia 1.14 1.12
      Lenoir, North Carolina 1.12 1.10
      Berkeley County, South Carolina 1.16 1.13
      Council Bluffs, Iowa 1.15 1.11
      Council Bluffs, Iowa (2nd facility) 1.12 1.10
      Mayes County, Oklahoma 1.14 1.12
      The Dalles, Oregon 1.15 1.14
      Dublin, Ireland 1.11 1.12
      St. Ghislain, Belgium 1.09 1.09
      Eemshaven, Netherlands 1.11 *
      Hamina, Finland 1.09 1.10
      Changhua County, Taiwan 1.17 1.15
      Singapore 1.17 1.18
      Quilicura, Chile 1.14 1.13

      *We report individual campus TTM PUE only for campuses with at least twelve months of data.

      For Q3 2017, TTM PUE was 1.12, which has remained constant for the past 5 years. Quarterly PUE was 1.13, slightly lower than last year's value of 1.14.

      For individual campuses, our lowest TTM PUE was 1.09, in Belgium. Our lowest quarterly PUE was 1.09, in Belgium and Finland.

      Our highest TTM PUE was 1.18, in Singapore. Our highest quarterly PUE was 1.17, in Singapore and Taiwan.

    • Fleet wide PUE Quarterly PUE Trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE
      Fleet 1.10 1.11
      Campuses Quarterly PUE Trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE
      Douglas County, Georgia 1.10 1.12
      Lenoir, North Carolina 1.10 1.10
      Berkeley County, South Carolina 1.11 1.13
      Council Bluffs, Iowa 1.15 1.12
      Council Bluffs, Iowa (2nd facility) 1.08 1.10
      Mayes County, Oklahoma 1.09 1.12
      The Dalles, Oregon 1.14 1.14
      Dublin, Ireland 1.11 1.11
      St. Ghislain, Belgium 1.08 1.09
      Eemshaven, Netherlands 1.12 1.13
      Hamina, Finland 1.09 1.09
      Changhua County, Taiwan 1.13 1.14
      Singapore 1.17 1.18
      Quilicura, Chile 1.13 1.14

      For Q4 2017, TTM PUE was 1.11, slightly lower than previous values of 1.12. Quarterly PUE was 1.10, slightly lower than last year's value of 1.11.

      For individual campuses, our lowest TTM PUE was 1.09, in Belgium and Finland. Our lowest quarterly PUE was 1.08, in Belgium and Iowa.

      Our highest TTM PUE was 1.18, in Singapore. Our highest quarterly PUE was 1.17, in Singapore.

    • Fleet-wide quarterly PUE: 1.11
      Fleet-wide trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE: 1.12
      Individual facility minimum quarterly PUE: 1.08, Data Centers K, O, BM, BO
      Individual facility minimum TTM PUE*: 1.10, Data Centers K, L, N, P, T, AB
      Individual facility maximum quarterly PUE: 1.22, Data Center U
      Individual facility maximum TTM PUE*: 1.24, Data Center BW

      *We report Individual Facility TTM PUE only for facilities with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      For Q1 2016, our fleet-wide TTM PUE was 1.12, which has remained constant for the past fourteen quarters. Our fleet-wide quarterly PUE was 1.11, equal to Q1 of the previous year.

      For individual facilities, our lowest TTM PUE was 1.10, at Data Centers K, L, N, P, T, and AB. Our lowest quarterly PUE was 1.08, at Data Centers K, O, BM, and BO.

      Our highest TTM PUE was 1.24 at Data Center BW. Our highest quarterly PUE was 1.22 at Data Center U.

    • Fleet wide PUE Quarterly PUE Trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE
      Fleet 1.12 1.12
      Campuses Quarterly PUE Trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE
      Douglas County, Georgia 1.12 1.11
      Lenoir, North Carolina 1.10 1.11
      Berkeley County, South Carolina 1.13 1.13
      Council Bluffs, Iowa 1.10 1.10
      Council Bluffs, Iowa (2nd facility) 1.11 1.12
      Mayes County, Oklahoma 1.11 1.11
      The Dalles, Oregon 1.13 1.13
      Dublin, Ireland 1.17 1.15
      St. Ghislain, Belgium 1.09 1.09
      Hamina, Finland 1.12 1.11
      Changhua County, Taiwan 1.20 1.18
      Singapore 1.19 1.21
      Quilicura, Chile 1.12 1.15

      *Starting July 2016, we began reporting PUE data for specific campuses by name. We’re doing this to add a deeper level of specificity to our reporting. (Campuses are listed on our data center locations page.) Prior to this, we had been reporting fleet-wide quarterly and TTM PUE since 2008, along with our highest and lowest PUE for individual facilities.

      For both fleet PUE and campus PUE, we include data from facilities that meet our 5 MW threshold for reporting, since these typically represent our stable operations. We may also report PUE for additional campuses when appropriate. PUE data for new campuses will be reported as information becomes available. TTM PUE is reported only for campuses with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      For Q2 2016, our fleet-wide TTM PUE was 1.12, which has remained constant for the past fifteen quarters. Our fleet-wide quarterly PUE was 1.12, equal to Q2 of the previous year.

      For individual campuses, our lowest TTM PUE was 1.09, in Belgium. Our lowest quarterly PUE was also 1.09, in Belgium.

      Our highest TTM PUE was 1.21, in Singapore. Our highest quarterly PUE was 1.20, in Taiwan.

    • Fleet wide PUE Quarterly PUE Trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE
      Fleet 1.14 1.12
      Campuses Quarterly PUE Trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE
      Douglas County, Georgia 1.16 1.12
      Lenoir, North Carolina 1.12 1.11
      Berkeley County, South Carolina 1.16 1.13
      Council Bluffs, Iowa 1.14 1.10
      Council Bluffs, Iowa (2nd facility) 1.14 1.12
      Mayes County, Oklahoma 1.15 1.12
      The Dalles, Oregon 1.13 1.13
      Dublin, Ireland 1.15 1.15
      St. Ghislain, Belgium 1.10 1.09
      Hamina, Finland 1.13 1.12
      Changhua County, Taiwan 1.20 1.18
      Singapore 1.20 1.21
      Quilicura, Chile 1.11 1.12

      For Q3 2016, TTM PUE was 1.12, which has remained constant for the past sixteen quarters. Quarterly PUE was 1.14, equal to Q3 of the previous year.

      For individual campuses, our lowest TTM PUE was 1.09, in Belgium. Our lowest quarterly PUE was 1.10, in Belgium.

      Our highest TTM PUE was 1.21, in Singapore. Our highest quarterly PUE was 1.20, in Taiwan and Singapore.

    • Fleet wide PUE Quarterly PUE Trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE
      Fleet 1.11 1.12
      Campuses Quarterly PUE Trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE
      Douglas County, Georgia 1.11 1.12
      Lenoir, North Carolina 1.10 1.10
      Berkeley County, South Carolina 1.10 1.13
      Council Bluffs, Iowa 1.10 1.10
      Council Bluffs, Iowa (2nd facility) 1.10 1.11
      Mayes County, Oklahoma 1.11 1.12
      The Dalles, Oregon 1.12 1.13
      Dublin, Ireland 1.17 1.15
      St. Ghislain, Belgium 1.09 1.09
      Hamina, Finland 1.12 1.12
      Changhua County, Taiwan 1.15 1.17
      Singapore 1.19 1.20
      Quilicura, Chile 1.11 1.11

      For Q4 2016, TTM PUE was 1.12, which has remained constant for the past seventeen quarters. Quarterly PUE was 1.11, equal to Q4 of the previous year.

      For individual campuses, our lowest TTM PUE was 1.09, in Belgium. Our lowest quarterly PUE was 1.09, in Belgium.

      Our highest TTM PUE was 1.20, in Singapore. Our highest quarterly PUE was 1.19, in Singapore.

    • Fleet-wide quarterly PUE: 1.11
      Fleet-wide trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE: 1.12
      Individual facility minimum quarterly PUE: 1.08, Data Center K
      Individual facility minimum TTM PUE*: 1.09, Data Center N
      Individual facility maximum quarterly PUE: 1.22, Data Center U
      Individual facility maximum TTM PUE*: 1.13, Data Centers D, E

      *We report Individual Facility TTM PUE only for facilities with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      For Q1, our fleet-wide TTM PUE was 1.12, which has remained constant for the past ten quarters. Our fleet-wide quarterly PUE was 1.11, which matches what it was a year ago.

      For individual facilities, our lowest TTM PUE was 1.09, at Data Center N. Our lowest quarterly PUE was 1.08, at Data Center K.

      Our highest TTM PUE was 1.13, at Data Centers D and E. Our highest quarterly PUE was 1.22, at Data Center U. This facility is not currently supporting a full IT load, and we expect the PUE to improve when the facility runs closer to its design load.

    • Fleet-wide quarterly PUE: 1.12
      Fleet-wide trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE: 1.12
      Individual facility minimum quarterly PUE: 1.09, Data Centers L, M, N
      Individual facility minimum TTM PUE*: 1.09, Data Centers M, N
      Individual facility maximum quarterly PUE: 1.24, Data Center U
      Individual facility maximum TTM PUE*: 1.24, Data Center U

      *We report Individual Facility TTM PUE only for facilities with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      For Q2, our fleet-wide TTM PUE was 1.12, which has remained constant for the past eleven quarters. Our fleet-wide quarterly PUE was 1.12, slightly higher than the 1.11 in Q2 of last year.

      For individual facilities, our lowest TTM PUE was 1.09, at Data Centers M and N. Our lowest quarterly PUE was also 1.09, at Data Centers L, M, and N.

      Our highest TTM PUE was 1.24 at Data Center U. Our highest quarterly PUE was also 1.24 at Data Center U. This facility is not currently supporting a full IT load, and we expect the PUE to improve when the facility runs closer to its design load.

    • Fleet-wide quarterly PUE: 1.14
      Fleet-wide trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE: 1.12
      Individual facility minimum quarterly PUE: 1.09, Data Centers N, BO
      Individual facility minimum TTM PUE*: 1.09, Data Center N
      Individual facility maximum quarterly PUE: 1.25, Data Center H
      Individual facility maximum TTM PUE*: 1.23, Data Center U

      *We report Individual Facility TTM PUE only for facilities with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      For Q3, our fleet-wide TTM PUE was 1.12, which has remained constant for the past twelve quarters. Our fleet-wide quarterly PUE was 1.14, slightly higher than the 1.13 in Q3 of last year.

      For individual facilities, our lowest TTM PUE was 1.09, at Data Center N. Our lowest quarterly PUE was also 1.09, at Data Centers N and BO.

      Our highest TTM PUE was 1.23 at Data Center U. Our highest quarterly PUE was 1.25 at Data Center H. Data Center H is currently not supporting a full IT load, and we expect the PUE to improve when the facility runs closer to its design load.

    • Fleet-wide quarterly PUE: 1.11
      Fleet-wide trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE: 1.12
      Individual facility minimum quarterly PUE: 1.08, Data Centers K, L, BM, BO
      Individual facility minimum TTM PUE*: 1.09, Data Center N
      Individual facility maximum quarterly PUE: 1.22, Data Centers I, U
      Individual facility maximum TTM PUE*: 1.31, Data Center AF

      *We report Individual Facility TTM PUE only for facilities with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      For Q4, our fleet-wide TTM PUE was 1.12, which has remained constant for the past thirteen quarters. Our fleet-wide quarterly PUE was 1.11, equal to Q4 of the previous year.

      For individual facilities, our lowest TTM PUE was 1.09, at Data Center N. Our lowest quarterly PUE was 1.08, at Data Centers K, L, BM, and BO.

      Our highest TTM PUE was 1.31 at Data Center AF. This facility spent much of the past year with fairly low IT load, so we expect its PUE to improve as it gets closer to its design load. Our highest quarterly PUE was 1.22 at Data Centers I and U. These two facilities are also at relatively low IT load.

    • Fleet-wide quarterly PUE: 1.11
      Fleet-wide trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE: 1.12
      Individual facility minimum quarterly PUE: 1.09, Data Centers J, K, L, O, P
      Individual facility minimum TTM PUE*: 1.10, Data Centers J, L, N
      Individual facility maximum quarterly PUE: 1.16, Data Center F
      Individual facility maximum TTM PUE*: 1.14, Data Centers B, D, G

      *We report Individual Facility TTM PUE only for facilities with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      For Q1, our quarterly PUE across the fleet was flat from the prior quarter, and remained at 1.11. The corresponding fleet-wide TTM PUE was 1.12, which matches what it was a year ago.

      New this quarter is that we have removed Data Center A from reporting. For the past year we have shared that we were moving load out of this site, and in Q1 the load dropped below our 5 MW threshold for reporting. As a result of this change, our maximum site quarterly PUE has dropped from 1.21, which was data center A in Q4 2013, to 1.16, which was data center F in Q1 2014.

      In Q1, we had six data centers reporting quarterly PUE of 1.10 or less, with five coming in at 1.09.

      For TTM site PUE, data centers J, L and N repeated their Q4 performance by producing the lowest TTM PUEs in our fleet, at 1.10.

    • Fleet-wide quarterly PUE: 1.11
      Fleet-wide trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE: 1.12
      Individual facility minimum quarterly PUE: 1.08, Data Center N
      Individual facility minimum TTM PUE*: 1.10, Data Centers J, L, N
      Individual facility maximum quarterly PUE: 1.14, Data Centers B, C, E, F
      Individual facility maximum TTM PUE*: 1.14, Data Centers B, F

      *We report Individual Facility TTM PUE only for facilities with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      For Q2, our fleet-wide quarterly PUE was 1.11, and our fleet-wide TTM PUE was 1.12. These are the same as the previous quarter's results.

      In Q2, we had five sites reporting quarterly PUEs of 1.10 or less. Three sites had TTM PUEs of 1.10 or less in the same period.

    • Fleet-wide quarterly PUE: 1.13
      Fleet-wide trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE: 1.12
      Individual facility minimum quarterly PUE: 1.09, Data Centers M, N
      Individual facility minimum TTM PUE*: 1.10, Data Centers J, L, M, N, P
      Individual facility maximum quarterly PUE: 1.26, Data Center U
      Individual facility maximum TTM PUE*: 1.13, Data Centers C, D, G, H

      *We report Individual Facility TTM PUE only for facilities with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      For Q3, our fleet-wide TTM PUE was 1.12, which has remained constant for the past eight quarters. Our fleet-wide quarterly PUE was 1.13, which is down from 1.14 in Q3 of last year.

      Our lowest TTM PUE was 1.10, achieved by five facilities. Our lowest quarterly PUE for an individual facility was 1.09, achieved by Data Centers M and N.

      Our highest TTM PUE for an individual facility was 1.13, at Data Centers C, D, G, H. Our highest quarterly PUE for an individual facility was 1.26, for Data Center U. This facility is not currently supporting a full IT load, and we expect the PUE to improve when the facility runs closer to its design load.

      This quarter, we removed Data Center B from our public reporting, since it is being decommissioned. We also added new facilities to our public reporting.

    • Fleet-wide quarterly PUE: 1.11
      Fleet-wide trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE: 1.12
      Individual facility minimum quarterly PUE: 1.09, Data Centers G, I, K, L, N, P
      Individual facility minimum TTM PUE*: 1.09, Data Center N
      Individual facility maximum quarterly PUE: 1.23, Data Center U
      Individual facility maximum TTM PUE*: 1.13, Data Center C, D, E, H

      *We report Individual Facility TTM PUE only for facilities with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      For Q4, our fleet-wide TTM PUE was 1.12, which has remained constant for the past nine quarters. Our fleet wide quarterly PUE was 1.11, which matches what it was a year ago.

      Our lowest TTM PUE was 1.09, at Data Center N. Our lowest quarterly PUE was also 1.09, achieved by six facilities.

      Our highest TTM PUE was 1.13, at Data Centers C, D, E, and H. Our highest quarterly PUE was 1.23 at Data Center U. This facility is not currently supporting a full IT load, and we expect the PUE to improve when the facility runs closer to its design load.

    • Fleet-wide quarterly PUE: 1.12
      Fleet-wide trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE: 1.12
      Individual facility minimum quarterly PUE: 1.09, Data Center F
      Individual facility minimum TTM PUE*: 1.09, Data Center J
      Individual facility maximum quarterly PUE: 1.20, Data Center A
      Individual facility maximum TTM PUE*: 1.22, Data Center A

      *We report Individual Facility TTM PUE only for facilities with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      For Q1, our fleet Quarterly PUE as well as fleet TTM PUE was 1.12. Compared to Q4 2012, our quarterly PUE is up by .01, and TTM remained flat.

      As for the individual sites themselves, six of our sites posted a Quarterly PUE of 1.10 or less. All but one of our sites continued to report quarterly PUE less than 1.20.

      For individual facility TTM PUE, all but one of our facilities showed PUE improvement as compared to Q1 2012. Data Center J reported a TTM PUE of 1.09, which is the same as its Q4 2012 TTM. Data center A continued to run at our highest PUE of 1.22.

      We periodically review our PUE calculations to ensure consistency with The Green Grid guidelines for each site and consistency across sites. In Q4 2013, we updated our PUE formulas for 2013 to include more of our site infrastructure as overhead, which has resulted in many of our PUE values increasing slightly. In addition to mechanical and electrical losses, PUE overhead energy in our PUE calculations includes energy used in substations, transformers, water treatment plants, accessory buildings (such as employee cafeterias and gyms) and office space. Yes, that's more than we've seen anyone include in their PUE. We could strip all this out and have a PUE of 1.06 or less, but we believe it's better to measure--and optimize--all aspects of data center operations. All 2013 values have been updated to reflect the new calculations.

    • Fleet-wide quarterly PUE: 1.12
      Fleet-wide trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE: 1.12
      Individual facility minimum quarterly PUE: 1.10, Data Centers J, L, N
      Individual facility minimum TTM PUE*: 1.09, Data Centers J
      Individual facility maximum quarterly PUE: 1.23, Data Centers A
      Individual facility maximum TTM PUE*: 1.22, Data Centers A

      *We report Individual Facility TTM PUE only for facilities with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      For Q2, our quarterly PUE across the fleet remained flat at 1.12, as did our fleet TTM PUE.

      On an individual site basis, three of our sites had PUE of 1.10 or less. Only data center A reported a PUE greater than 1.20.

      For our individual site TTM PUE, three sites had 12-month TTM PUE of 1.10 or less. Only data center A reported a TTM PUE greater than 1.20.

      We periodically review our PUE calculations to ensure consistency with The Green Grid guidelines for each site and consistency across sites. In Q4 2013, we updated our PUE formulas for 2013 to include more of our site infrastructure as overhead, which has resulted in many of our PUE values increasing slightly. In addition to mechanical and electrical losses, PUE overhead energy in our PUE calculations includes energy used in substations, transformers, water treatment plants, accessory buildings (such as employee cafeterias and gyms) and office space. Yes, that's more than we've seen anyone include in their PUE. We could strip all this out and have a PUE of 1.06 or less, but we believe it's better to measure--and optimize--all aspects of data center operations. All 2013 values have been updated to reflect the new calculations.

    • Fleet-wide quarterly PUE: 1.14
      Fleet-wide trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE: 1.12
      Individual facility minimum quarterly PUE: 1.10, Data Centers J, N
      Individual facility minimum TTM PUE*: 1.10, Data Centers F, J, N
      Individual facility maximum quarterly PUE: 1.25, Data Centers A
      Individual facility maximum TTM PUE*: 1.22, Data Centers A

      *We report Individual Facility TTM PUE only for facilities with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      For Q3, our quarterly PUE across the fleet went up by 0.02, which was expected since Q3 has the hottest months of the year. The corresponding fleet-wide TTM PUE was 1.12, the same as the prior quarter.

      As for the individual sites themselves, all but one of our sites continued to report quarterly PUE less than 1.20. Two of our sites have PUE of 1.10 or lower.

      For individual site TTM PUE, three data centers reported a TTM PUE of 1.10 or lower.

      We periodically review our PUE calculations to ensure consistency with The Green Grid guidelines for each site and consistency across sites. In Q4 2013, we updated our PUE formulas for 2013 to include more of our site infrastructure as overhead, which has resulted in many of our PUE values increasing slightly. In addition to mechanical and electrical losses, PUE overhead energy in our PUE calculations includes energy used in substations, transformers, water treatment plants, accessory buildings (such as employee cafeterias and gyms) and office space. Yes, that's more than we've seen anyone include in their PUE. We could strip all this out and have a PUE of 1.06 or less, but we believe it's better to measure--and optimize--all aspects of data center operations. All 2013 values have been updated to reflect the new calculations.

    • Fleet-wide quarterly PUE: 1.11
      Fleet-wide trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE: 1.12
      Individual facility minimum quarterly PUE: 1.09, Data Centers E, L
      Individual facility minimum TTM PUE*: 1.10, Data Centers J, L, N
      Individual facility maximum quarterly PUE: 1.21, Data Centers A
      Individual facility maximum TTM PUE*: 1.22, Data Centers A

      *We report Individual Facility TTM PUE only for facilities with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      We periodically review our PUE calculations to ensure consistency with The Green Grid guidelines for each site and consistency across sites. In Q4 2013, we updated our PUE formulas for 2013 to include more of our site infrastructure as overhead, which has resulted in many of our PUE values increasing slightly. In addition to mechanical and electrical losses, PUE overhead energy in our PUE calculations includes energy used in substations, transformers, water treatment plants, accessory buildings (such as employee cafeterias and gyms) and office space. Yes, that's more than we've seen anyone include in their PUE. We could strip all this out and have a PUE of 1.06 or less, but we believe it's better to measure--and optimize--all aspects of data center operations. All 2013 values have been updated to reflect the new calculations.

      For Q4 2013, our fleet-wide quarterly PUE dropped to 1.11, and fleet-wide TTM remained flat at 1.12.

      On an individual site basis, two sites had PUE of 1.09, and seven had PUE of 1.10 or less. Data center A continued to have the highest PUE at 1.21.

      For our TTM PUEs, three sites had TTM PUEs of 1.10 or less.

    • Fleet-wide quarterly PUE: 1.11
      Fleet-wide trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE: 1.13
      Individual facility minimum quarterly PUE: 1.08, Data Center F
      Individual facility minimum TTM PUE*: 1.11, Data Center F
      Individual facility maximum quarterly PUE: 1.20, Data Center A
      Individual facility maximum TTM PUE*: 1.22, Data Center A

      *We report Individual Facility TTM PUE only for facilities with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      In Q1 2012, we posted another best quarterly fleet PUE performance at 1.11, down from last quarter's fleet PUE of 1.12. Seven different facilities posted quarterly best results, and four facilities returned quarterly energy-weighted PUEs of less than 1.10.

      We included our twelfth facility, Data Center M, because it meets our PUE reporting criteria. Data Center M posted a quarterly energy-weighted PUE of 1.14, higher than the steady-state design target but inline with expectations due to commissioning activities.

      Cooling system retrofits at data centers D and E reduced quarterly PUEs from 1.22 and 1.19 last year to 1.14 in Q1 2012. Data Center A reported a higher than typical quarterly PUE of 1.22 due to site work.

      Fleet TTM performance also set a new best as our energy-weighted average PUE improved from 1.14 in Q4 to 1.13. Q1 also marked a full year since we added natural gas and office space to our overhead — yet both quarterly and TTM PUEs continue to improve.

    • Fleet-wide quarterly PUE: 1.12
      Fleet-wide trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE: 1.13
      Individual facility minimum quarterly PUE: 1.09, Data Center J
      Individual facility minimum TTM PUE*: 1.10, Data Center F
      Individual facility maximum quarterly PUE: 1.24, Data Center A
      Individual facility maximum TTM PUE*: 1.23, Data Center A

      *We report Individual Facility TTM PUE only for facilities with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      In Q2 2012, our quarterly fleet PUE increased by 0.01 from 1.12 to 1.13. We expect to see a slight increase in PUE as the weather warms between Q1 and Q2 in the Northern Hemisphere, and this year the 0.01 Q1-Q2 increase was the smallest increase we've seen. Individually, eight of ten sites had better quarterly PUE results than they did in Q2 2011.

      We included our fourteenth facility, Data Center N, because it meets our PUE reporting criteria of having 6 months of operation above 5 MW of load. Data Center N posted a quarterly energy-weighted PUE of 1.12, which is lower than our quarterly fleet PUE of 1.13.

      Ongoing cooling system retrofits at data centers D and E reduced quarterly PUEs from 1.20 and 1.18 last year to 1.15 in Q2 2012. Data center A reported a higher than typical quarterly PUE of 1.23 as we continue to move IT load out of that site to more efficient facilities.

      Fleet TTM performance held steady at 1.13 from Q1 to Q2.

    • Fleet-wide quarterly PUE: >1.14
      Fleet-wide trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE: 1.13
      Individual facility minimum quarterly PUE: 1.08, Data Center J
      Individual facility minimum TTM PUE*: 1.10, Data Centers F and J
      Individual facility maximum quarterly PUE: 1.25, Data Center A
      Individual facility maximum TTM PUE*: 1.23, Data Center A

      *We report Individual Facility TTM PUE only for facilities with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      In Q3 2012, our fleet-wide quarterly PUE increased by 0.02 from 1.12 to 1.14. We expect to see a slight increase in PUE as the weather warms between Q2 and Q3 in the Northern Hemisphere, and the 0.02 Q2-Q3 increase this year is in line with prior year increases. As compared to Q3 2011, all but one of our sites had better quarterly PUE results than they did a year ago.

      Fleet-wide TTM PUE performance remained flat at 1.13 from Q2 to Q3.

      The quarterly PUE at data center J dropped from 1.09 to 1.08 in Q3, which makes it our best performing data center. The TTM PUE for that same data center was 1.10, which was also our best TTM PUE. Ongoing reconfigurations at data center A resulted in our highest quarterly PUE of 1.25.

      Note: We caught some miscalculations and have made corrections to our Q3 2012 PUE results since we first posted them in October 2012. We updated our quarterly PUE from 1.13 to 1.14, our TTM avg. PUE from 1.12 to 1.13, our individual facility min. TTM PUE from 1.08 to 1.10, our individual facility max. quarterly PUE from 1.18 to 1.25, and our individual facility max. TTM PUE from 1.18 to 1.23.

    • Fleet-wide quarterly PUE: 1.11
      Fleet-wide trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE: 1.12
      Individual facility minimum quarterly PUE: 1.08, Data Centers F and J
      Individual facility minimum TTM PUE*: 1.09, Data Center J
      Individual facility maximum quarterly PUE: 1.19, Data Center A
      Individual facility maximum TTM PUE*: 1.23, Data Center A

      *We report Individual Facility TTM PUE only for facilities with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      In Q4, our energy-weighted quarterly PUE dropped .03 to 1.11 from a Q3 value of 1.14. This ties with Q1 2012 as our best quarterly energy-weighted PUE value so far. Each of our sites had quarterly PUE values less than 1.20, with five sites reporting quarterly PUE values less than 1.10. For the first time, two of our sites reported PUE values of 1.08.

      Our individual facility maximum quarterly PUE dropped from 1.25 to 1.19. This drop resulted from our work at Data Center A, where we had been moving IT load out to more efficient facilities over the past few quarters. The PUE at that site initially went up, but once we had moved enough IT load out of that site, we were able to reduce our cooling to better match the remaining IT load — resulting in an overall drop in PUE.

      Our TTM energy-weighted PUE for Q4 was our best on record at 1.12, which was down .01 from last quarter. All but one of our sites reduced their TTM PUE values in Q4 2012, compared to Q4 2011. Data center J reported a TTM PUE of 1.09, making it our first site to report a TTM PUE less than 1.10.

    • Fleet-wide quarterly PUE: 1.13
      Fleet-wide trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE: 1.16
      Individual facility minimum quarterly PUE: 1.09, Data Center E
      Individual facility minimum TTM PUE*: 1.11, Data Center J
      Individual facility maximum quarterly PUE: 1.22, Data Center C
      Individual facility maximum TTM PUE*: 1.21, Data Center C

      *We report Individual Facility TTM PUE only for facilities with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      Our Q1 '11 quarterly energy-weighted average PUE of 1.13 is another excellent fleet performance, matching our best previous in Q4 2010. Typical Q1 seasonal effects kept PUEs low. Data Center E set a new best energy-weighted quarterly PUE to date of 1.09 and Data Center J set a new best TTM PUE of 1.11. Both are excellent performances that are approaching facility design targets.

      Q1 '11 TTM energy-weighted average PUE for our fleet also stayed at the previous low 1.16 set last quarter. Year over year, only data centers C and D had increased quarterly PUEs, in part due to retrofit work being done. All other facilities posted improved PUEs year over year due to continued optimization in facility operations.

    • Fleet-wide quarterly PUE: 1.14
      Fleet-wide trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE: 1.15
      Individual facility minimum quarterly PUE: 1.11, Data Center E
      Individual facility minimum TTM PUE*: 1.11, Data Center J
      Individual facility maximum quarterly PUE: 1.21, Data Center C
      Individual facility maximum TTM PUE*: 1.20, Data Center C

      *We report Individual Facility TTM PUE only for facilities with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      In Q2 we updated how we calculate PUE to comply with The Green Grid's revised recommendations on measuring and reporting PUE. The change added two new overhead components: natural gas and electricity consumed by data center office space. These changes will have a modest negative impact on PUE. From Q2 onward, we will use the new methodology to report our PUE. However, we will not recalculate Q1 2011 and previous quarters to comply with the new guidelines.

      Even with the inclusion of additional overhead terms, the quarterly energy-weighted average PUE was our best Q2 result to date at 1.14. We saw a small increase from 1.13 in Q'11, a strong performance given warmer Q2 temperatures. Quarterly fleet performance improved year over year from 1.17, driven by continued operational improvements, more favorable weather (compared to Q2 2010), and facilities reaching design targets. All but one facility improved year-over-year PUE for Q2.

      Our trailing twelve-month energy-weighted average PUE continues to improve with our fleet performance being 1.15, the lowest level since we began reporting PUE data. The TTM energy-weighted PUE has improved every quarter since Q3 2009, and has improved from 1.17 year over year.

    • Fleet-wide quarterly PUE: 1.16
      Fleet-wide trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE: 1.14
      Individual facility minimum quarterly PUE: 1.12, Data Center J
      Individual facility minimum TTM PUE*: 1.11, Data Center J
      Individual facility maximum quarterly PUE: 1.24, Data Center A
      Individual facility maximum TTM PUE*: 1.20, Data Center A

      *We report Individual Facility TTM PUE only for facilities with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      Typical warmer summer temperatures increased our fleet's quarterly energy-weighted PUE to 1.16 from 1.14 in Q2. Our quarterly fleet performance showed a significant improvement year over year from 1.20 in Q3 2010 due to less extreme weather and ongoing operational improvements.

      Weather almost invariably makes Q3 post the highest quarterly energy-weighted PUE of the year. Yet our Q3 2011 results, the worst quarterly performance of the year (assuming we don't have an abnormal Q4), is the same or better than all but our best quarterly performance in 2008, 2009, and the first half of 2010.

      Our trailing twelve-month energy-weighted average PUE continues to improve with our fleet performance being 1.14, the lowest level since we began reporting PUE data. The TTM energy-weighted PUE has improved every quarter since Q3 2009, and has improved from 1.17 year over year.

    • Fleet-wide quarterly PUE: 1.12
      Fleet-wide trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE: 1.14
      Individual facility minimum quarterly PUE: 1.08, Data Center F
      Individual facility minimum TTM PUE*: 1.11, Data Center F
      Individual facility maximum quarterly PUE: 1.20, Data Center A
      Individual facility maximum TTM PUE*: 1.21, Data Center A

      *We report Individual Facility TTM PUE only for facilities with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      We posted our best quarterly PUE performance to date at 1.12, down from the previous best of 1.13 in Q1 2010. We accomplished this even after adding two new facilities and even during a quarter with warmer than average temperatures. Data Center F also set a new quarterly best PUE performance for an individual facility at 1.08, improving on the previous best of 1.09 by Data Center E in Q1 2011.

      As mentioned, this quarter we included two additional facilities in our calculations because they meet our PUE reporting criteria (more than 5MW of critical load and operating for more than 6 months). New Data Centers K and L posted quarterly energy-weighted PUEs of 1.13 and 1.15 respectively. New facilities typically result in higher-than-design PUE because of commissioning activities, partial loading, and a lack of operational tuning.

      Comparing 2011's TTM performance to 2010's, our fleet energy-weighted average PUE improved from 1.16 to 1.14. For individual facilities, Data Centers E, F, and J are all operating with a TTM PUE of 1.11, while only Data Center J operated at a TTM PUE of 1.12 in 2010.

    • Fleet-wide quarterly PUE: 1.15
      Fleet-wide trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE: 1.18
      Individual facility minimum quarterly PUE: 1.10, Data Center E
      Individual facility minimum TTM PUE*: 1.13, Data Center B
      Individual facility maximum quarterly PUE: 1.20, Data Center C
      Individual facility maximum TTM PUE*: 1.24, Data Center A

      *We report Individual Facility TTM PUE only for facilities with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      Q1 '10 was the best quarterly fleet performance recorded, with the quarterly energy-weighted average PUE of all facilities falling to 1.15 from 1.16 in Q4. All but one facility posted a PUE of 1.2 or less. The improvement was due to the typical seasonal effects and improved operational strategies at Data Centers G, H, I, and J. Data Center E also posted the best quarterly PUE performance from an individual facility to date at 1.10. The trailing twelve-month energy-weighted average PUE improved to 1.18 from 1.19 the same quarter a year ago. We expect higher PUE values in Q2 due to less favorable ambient weather conditions.

    • Fleet-wide quarterly PUE: 1.17
      Fleet-wide trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE: 1.18
      Individual facility minimum quarterly PUE: 1.13, Data Center J
      Individual facility minimum TTM PUE*: 1.13, Data Center B
      Individual facility maximum quarterly PUE: 1.22, Data Center A
      Individual facility maximum TTM PUE*: 1.23, Data Center H

      *We report Individual Facility TTM PUE only for facilities with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      Typical seasonal effects resulted in a quarter-over-quarter increase in the total quarterly energy-weighted average PUE to 1.17. On average, the Q2 wet-bulb temperatures at our facility locations were higher than those of 2009, yet our fleet's quarterly performance improved year over year from 1.20. For the first time Data Center J posted the best quarterly PUE at 1.13 due to improved operations and tuning. The trailing twelve-month energy-weighted average PUE for all facilities remained at 1.18, an improvement from 1.19 in Q2 2009. Peak summer weather will likely see an increase in the fleet's quarterly energy-weighted average PUE for Q3.

    • Fleet-wide quarterly PUE: 1.20
      Fleet-wide trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE: 1.17
      Individual facility minimum quarterly PUE: 1.12, Data Center J
      Individual facility minimum TTM PUE*: 1.13, Data Center B
      Individual facility maximum quarterly PUE: 1.24, Data Center A
      Individual facility maximum TTM PUE*: 1.21, Data Center H

      *We report Individual Facility TTM PUE only for facilities with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      On average, the Q3 wet-bulb temperatures at our facilities were the highest since we started reporting PUE. This weather drove an expected quarter-over-quarter increase in the total quarterly energy-weighted average PUE to 1.20 but the TTM PUE remained flat at 1.18. Even with unfavorable weather, our fleet's quarterly performance improved year over year from 1.22 to 1.20 and the TTM performance improved from 1.19 to 1.18. Data Center J's continued operational tuning resulted in a quarterly (and facility) best PUE at 1.12, a strong performance.

    • Fleet-wide quarterly PUE: 1.13
      Fleet-wide trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE: 1.16
      Individual facility minimum quarterly PUE: 1.10, Data Center E
      Individual facility minimum TTM PUE*: 1.12, Data Center J
      Individual facility maximum quarterly PUE: 1.22, Data Center C
      Individual facility maximum TTM PUE*: 1.21, Data Center A

      *We report Individual Facility TTM PUE only for facilities with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      Our Q4 '10 quarterly energy-weighted average PUE of 1.13 is the best result since we started reporting, beating the PUE of 1.15 in Q1 '10. All but one facility (Data Center C) reported sub-1.20 PUE, and half of the facilities reported PUEs of less than 1.12. Typical seasonal effects were the primary driver for quarter-over-quarter improvements.

      The Q4 '10 TTM energy-weighted average PUE also set a new low of 1.16, down from 1.17 in Q3, highlighting steady continuous improvement of the entire fleet. Year over year, only one facility (Data Center C), currently undergoing a retrofit, reported a higher PUE in Q4'10 than Q4 '09; all other facilities improved their efficiency. We achieved year-over-year improvements by improving execution on optimal operational practices and having our facilities operate closer to the design targets.

    • Fleet-wide quarterly PUE: 1.15
      Fleet-wide trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE: 1.19
      Individual facility minimum quarterly PUE: 1.11, Data Center F
      Individual facility minimum TTM PUE*: 1.15, Data Center B
      Individual facility maximum quarterly PUE: 1.20, Data Center C
      Individual facility maximum TTM PUE*: 1.23, Data Center A

      *We report Individual Facility TTM PUE only for facilities with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      The efficiency of all data centers again improved quarter over quarter due to further optimization and cooler temperatures. The quarterly energy-weighted average PUE dropped to 1.15 from 1.16 in Q4, and the quarterly PUE values for each data center was less than or equal to 1.20. The collective TTM energy-weighted average PUE fell to 1.19 from 1.20. The best-performing individual facility quarterly PUE dropped to 1.11 (Data Center F) from 1.13 in Q4 (Data Center E). Data Center F had the highest PUE in Q3 '08 due to a low IT load and incomplete commissioning activity at that time. Data Center A yielded year-over-year reductions due to completed cooling plant improvements. Data Centers C and D improved year over year because of increased IT load, which better utilized the cooling plant resources.

    • Fleet-wide quarterly PUE: 1.20
      Fleet-wide trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE: 1.19
      Individual facility minimum quarterly PUE: 1.15, Data Center B
      Individual facility minimum TTM PUE*: 1.14, Data Center B
      Individual facility maximum quarterly PUE: 1.30, Data Center H
      Individual facility maximum TTM PUE*: 1.22, Data Center A

      *We report Individual Facility TTM PUE only for facilities with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      This quarter three new data centers (G,H, and I) met inclusion criteria, bringing the total number of conforming facilities to nine. The PUE of the new facilities is elevated due to commissioning and bring-up activities. The combined impact of partially-commissioned facilities and traditional seasonal effects resulted in a quarter-over-quarter increase of our quarterly energy-weighted average PUE, bringing it to 1.20. The TTM energy-weighted average PUE for all conforming facilities, however, remained at 1.19, despite warmer temperatures. This result is due to continued year-over-year operational improvements for Google's fully commissioned data centers. Both the minimum and maximum individual facility TTM PUE results decreased in this quarter as a result of operational improvements.

    • Fleet-wide quarterly PUE: 1.22
      Fleet-wide trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE: 1.19
      Individual facility minimum quarterly PUE: 1.15, Data Center B
      Individual facility minimum TTM PUE*: 1.14, Data Center B
      Individual facility maximum quarterly PUE: 1.33, Data Center H
      Individual facility maximum TTM PUE*: 1.21, Data Center A

      *We report Individual Facility TTM PUE only for facilities with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      We added one new facility, Data Center J, to our PUE report. Overall, our fleet quarter-over-quarter results were as expected. The Q3 total quarterly energy-weighted average PUE of 1.22 was higher than the Q2 result of 1.20 due to expected seasonal effects. The trailing twelve-month energy-weighted average PUE remained constant at 1.19. Year-over-year performance improved from facility tuning and continued application of best practices. The quarterly energy-weighted average PUE improved from 1.23 in Q3'08, and the TTM PUE improved from 1.21. New data centers G, H, I, and J reported elevated PUE results as we continue to tune operations to meet steady-state design targets.

    • Fleet-wide quarterly PUE: 1.16
      Fleet-wide trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE: 1.19
      Individual facility minimum quarterly PUE: 1.11, Data Center E
      Individual facility minimum TTM PUE*: 1.13, Data Center B
      Individual facility maximum quarterly PUE: 1.21, Data Center C
      Individual facility maximum TTM PUE*: 1.21, Data Center A

      *We report Individual Facility TTM PUE only for facilities with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      Seasonal effects and operational improvements enabled quarter-over-quarter efficiency improvements for all data centers in Q4, reducing the quarterly energy-weighted average PUE of all facilities to 1.16 from 1.22 in Q3. The best quarterly efficiency performance from an individual facility was a PUE of 1.11 (Data Center E), tying our lowest reported value to date (Data Center B, Q1 '09). The trailing twelve-month energy-weighted average PUE improved to 1.19 from 1.20 the same quarter a year ago. The best TTM energy-weighted PUE for an individual facility dropped to 1.13 (Data Center B), the lowest TTM PUE to date. Data Centers G, H, I, and J continue to mature operationally, improving their PUE. We expect this trend to continue until they reach the steady state design targets.

    • Fleet-wide quarterly PUE: 1.23
      Fleet-wide trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE: 1.21
      Individual facility minimum quarterly PUE: 1.17, Data Center B
      Individual facility minimum TTM PUE*: 1.15, Data Center B
      Individual facility maximum quarterly PUE: 1.30, Data Center B
      Individual facility maximum TTM PUE*: 1.25, Data Center A

      *We report Individual Facility TTM PUE only for facilities with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      Initial public release of PUE data reported TTM energy-weighted PUE values for six Google data centers satisfying the inclusion criteria. Data centers E & F show the effects of commissioning including large day-to-day PUE fluctuations and are running above the steady-state design efficiency. Seasonal influences can be seen in the Q2-Q3 time frame across all data centers.

    • Fleet-wide quarterly PUE: 1.16
      Fleet-wide trailing twelve-month (TTM) PUE: 1.20
      Individual facility minimum quarterly PUE: 1.13, Data Center E
      Individual facility minimum TTM PUE*: 1.15, Data Center B
      Individual facility maximum quarterly PUE: 1.21, Data Center A
      Individual facility maximum TTM PUE*: 1.24, Data Center A

      *We report Individual Facility TTM PUE only for facilities with at least twelve months of operation.

      Details:

      Efficiency of all data centers improved quarter-over-quarter due to continued optimization and cooler temperatures. The quarterly energy-weighted average PUE dropped to 1.16 from 1.22 in Q3 while the collective TTM energy-weighted average PUE fell to 1.20 from 1.21. The best performing individual facility quarterly PUE dropped to 1.13 (Data Centers E, F) from 1.17 in Q3 (Data Center B). All facilities made year-over-year efficiency improvements, with Data Center A showing strong results from cooling plant improvements designed to improve free cooling.

      Data Centers E and F moved through commissioning and into full operation, both yielding an excellent quarterly PUE score of 1.13 and 1.14, respectively. Looking back, Figure 2 shows the large daily variations and higher PUE quieting to an expected lower value.During commissioning, at times all chillers and air movers were run simultaneously in order to test proper operation of the facility. Concurrently, IT equipment load was small because the facility was in the early stages of deployment. These factors caused the higher Q3 2008 average PUE values as well as significant day-to-day variations. Q4 2008 saw these commissioning activities taper off, and the favorable seasonal conditions led to lower, stable PUE values.

Measurement FAQ

What's the average PUE of other data centers?

According to the Uptime Institute's 2019 Data Center Survey, the global average of respondents' largest data centers is around 1.67.

Why does our data vary?

Our facilities have different power and cooling infrastructures, and are located in different climates. Seasonal weather patterns also impact PUE values, which is why they tend to be lower during cooler quarters. We've managed to maintain a low PUE average across our entire fleet of data center sites around the world — even during hot, humid summers.

How do we get our PUE data?

We use multiple on-line power meters in our data centers to measure power consumption over time. We track the energy used by our cooling infrastructure and IT equipment on separate meters, giving us very accurate PUE calculations. We account for all of our power-consuming elements in our PUE by using dozens or even hundreds of power meters in our facilities.

What do we include in our calculations?

When measuring our IT equipment power, we include only the servers, storage, and networking equipment. We consider everything else overhead power. For example, we include electrical losses from a server's power cord as overhead, not as IT power. Similarly, we measure total utility power at the utility side of the substation, and therefore include substation transformer losses in our PUE.

Energy source diagram

Figure 3: Google includes servers, storage, and networking equipment as IT equipment power. We consider everything else overhead power.

Equation for PUE for our data centers

Equation for PUE for our data centers

Key:

Red: Overheated Energy

Green: IT Energy

ESIS: Energy consumption for supporting infrastructure power substations feeding the cooling plant, lighting, office space, and some network equipment

EITS: Energy consumption for IT power substations feeding servers, network, storage, and computer room air conditioners (CRACs)

ETX: Medium and high-voltage transformer losses

EHV: High-voltage cable losses

ELV: Low-voltage cable losses

EF: Energy consumption from on-site fuels including natural gas and fuel oils

ECRAC: CRAC energy consumption

EUPS: Energy loss at uninterruptible power supplies (UPSes) that feed servers, network, and storage equipment

ENet1: Network room energy fed from type 1 unit substitution

  • Data center interior

    Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE)

    The data center industry uses the measurement PUE, or power usage effectiveness, to measure efficiency. A PUE of 2.0 means that for every watt of IT power, an additional watt is consumed to cool and distribute power to the IT equipment. A PUE closer to 1.0 means nearly all of the energy is used for computing.

  • Google Data Center technician

    Data centers and machine learning

    The virtual world is built on physical infrastructure, and all those racks of humming servers use vast amounts of energy. Together, all existing data centers use roughly 2% of the world’s electricity; if left unchecked, this energy demand could grow as rapidly as internet use. So making data centers run as efficiently as possible is a very big deal — and that’s what we set out to do.