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Publication numberUS989530 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 11, 1911
Filing dateDec 6, 1910
Priority dateDec 6, 1910
Publication numberUS 989530 A, US 989530A, US-A-989530, US989530 A, US989530A
InventorsChester E Macduffee
Original AssigneeGeorge A Traver, James P Reid, John L Gordon, Ernest Meyer, Chester E Macduffee
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Submarine armor.
US 989530 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

C. E. MACDUFFEE.

SUBMARINE ARMOR. APPLICATION FILED DB0. e, 1910.V

Patented Apr. 11, 1911.

4 SHEETS-snm* 1.

wm/6@ @galn amg C. E. MACDUPFEE.

SUBMARINE ARMOR.

APPLICATION FILED 1330.6. 1910.

Patented Apr. 11, 1911.

4 SHEETS-SHEET Z.

u y Iliff/ll,

C. E. MAGDUPFEE.

SUBMARINE ARMOR. APPLIOATION FILED DEO. 6, 191.0.

Patented Apr. 11, 1911.

4 SHEETS-SHEET 3.

o a o fw my C. E. MACDUFFEE.

` SUBMARINE ARMOR. APPLIOATION FILED 1130.6, 1910.

989,530m Patented Apr. 11, 1911.

, Y 4 SHEETS-SHEET 4.

CHESTER E. MACDUFFEE, OF NEW YORK, Y.. ASSIGNOIR F ONE-FIFTH TO GEORGE A'. l TRAVER, OF BROOKLYN, NEW YORK, ONE-FIFTH TO J'AMES P. REID, OF NEW YORK,

N. Y., ONEFIFTH TO JOHN L. GORDON, WEST HOBOKEN, NEW JERSEY, AND ONE- I FIFTH TO ERNEST MEYER, OF TUXEDO, NEW YORK.

sUBMAmNE ARMOR.

Specification of Letters Patent.

Patent-ed Apr. 11, i911.

v vApplication filed December 6, 1910. Serial N o. 595,847.

To .all whom 'it may' concern.'

Be it known that I, CHESTER E. MACDUF- FEE, a citizen of the United States, residing at the borough of Manhattan, city, county, and State of New York, have invented an Improvement in Submarine Armor, of which the following is a specification.

,l ln the diving suits heretofore employed consisting of a one piece suit of rubber and canvas with a metallic breastplate or collar,

and a metal helmet secured thereto, work and exploration under water is limited to a certain depth, on account of the enormous water pressure on the diver. With diving suits of such character only persons of perfect health and physique can pursue the calling; and a powerfulpump must be constantly atv work above water for Supplying lair while the diver is down,.because a stoppage of the pump at such time would result in the almost instant death of the diver from Athe pressure of the water.

My inventionrelates to a submarine armor` for divers comprising a metallic suit conforming in general configuration to the shape of the human body and so'constructed natural motion of the body and limbs` en-f as-to withstand the water pressure at great depth, and in which the diver is completely incased; thearmor being provided with articulated sections occupied by the legs and arms of the occupant, so as to allow of abling the diver tomove from place to place.

while prosthetic hands operated by a rod' and connections moved bv the natural hands inside enable the diver to grasp and retain .the objects of his Search, and perform other j duties inthe premises; and the further objects of my invention aretl) to 4rprovide means '-for. lengthening and shortening the "limb sections of the armor so that it may be adapted to divers-of different stature; (2l

to provide joints capable of being adjustedy to regulate friction; (3) to provide means for allowing the'feetof the diver to be f' moved in all directions, and (4) toprovide the varmor with a permanently attached h01def-fofeieariciight lamps, so that u...

diver maybe relieved from carrying a lamp fin'his hand'. as lhas heretofore been necessary. I lattain these objects by the mechanism roller bearing frames.

illustrated in the which- Figure 1 is lan elevation of -my improved submarine armor. Fig. 2 is a longitudinal section of the upper body and helmet portions of the armor. Fig. 3 is a longitudinal section and partial elevation of the hip and leg sections of the armor. Fig. 4 is a` see tion and partial elevation at the dotted line of Fig. 2. Fig. 5 is a section and partial elevation at the dotted line m1 m1 of Fig. 3. Fig. 6 'is a section at the dotted liney m2 of Fig. 3. Fig. 7 is a section at the rlotted line y, y, of Fig. 3. Fig;A 8 is a side view and Fig. 9 a plan View of the ring' member and its runners for supporting the leg sections. Fig. 10 isjanelevation and Fig. 11 is a plan view of a portion of a roller j frame and its rollers employed at the various joints. Fig. 12 is a sectional view in larger accompanying drawings, in

size of one of the side bearing frames and Fig. 16.is an edge shoulder joints. Fig.` 18 is a sectional view .in larger size of the swivel joint between the knees and ankles. Fig. 19 is asectionat the 'dotted line e, z, of Fig. 18. Fig. 20 is a plan view of a portion of the spacing rings shown in Fig. 1 8. Fig. 21.is a section at the dotted line a1 .el Fig.18. Fig. 22 is a plan of a porf tion of the presser .packing rings.. Fig. 23 is a sectional view of a4 modification ofthe Similanreference letters and numerals The main bodyA portion; (if` the armor is of, a ygeneral shape `andiconfiguration to con-)- refer to'similar parts throughout the .sevf eral views. f

form as nearly as possible with theshapem` This bodyy portion is `preferably 'made in and configuration ofthe human bodyfconsisten't with the character' of the Structure.' f

three sections as shown, that is, a central I or stomach section 1,.anabdominal and hip section 2 and a chest and neck section 3. The helmet 4 may be made integral with the chest and neck section 3 if desired, but I prefer to make it a separate part to be screwed into the upper body section 3 as has heretofore been done, or it may be removably secured thereto in any other suitable manner. The helmet 4 is provided withI three glasses at 5, one on top and one on either side to admit light into the helmet,

-and these glasses are permanently secured in a water-tight manner as usual. There is also a front glass 6 on the helmet which is made to unscrew and enable the diver to receive or give instructions without removing thehelmet, when the diver is above water.

The chest and neck section 3 has a flange 3L extending around its lower edge, and the abdominal and hip section 2 has a flange 2u extending around its upper edge, while the stomach section 1 has a flange 1a extending around its upper edge, and a flange 1b extending around its lower edge, and when the parts are assembled, the flange 1b of the section 1, rests upon the flange 2a of the section 2, while the flange 3a of the section 3 rests upon the flange 1a of the section 1 and the sections are then secured together in any suitable manner, but preferably by bolts 7 passing through bolt-holes in said flan es. These connections are of course ren ered water-tight by means of suitable packing. I prefer that the sections 1 and 3 be connected at a point central of the shoulder joint as shown.

At the shoulder on each side of the armor there is a circular opening 9, the metal surrounding such openings on the interior being inwardly extended a predetermined distance andl forming annular sockets 10 interiorly screw-threaded and having inturned flanges 11 to receive and support the arm sections hereafter described. See Figs. 4 and 15. The ybottom of the lower section 2 is shaped semi-circularly from front to rear,

13 are in parallel plane and are preferably"- somewhat V-shaped in cross section, but may be of any shape desired where the under surface is inclined'from front to back.

Two openings 14 are formed at a predetermined distance apart in. the bottom and curved portion of the section 2 which openings are slightly elongated in a direction from front to rear. The top portions of the upper leg sections 15 are interiorly screwthe width of the elongated openings 14 so Y as to be received therein and have forward and backward movement without friction.

Within the abdominal or hip section 2 there are bearing members consisting of a cylindrical part 16 interiorly screw-threaded and having at the top on either side right angle projections 16a curved to conform to the curvature of t-he lower portion of the abdominal or hip section 2. These right angled projections 16a form supporting runners for the leg sections as hereinafter described and are preferably provided on their top and bottom surfaces with flat hardened steel strips 16"- securely fastened thereto in any suitable manner. See Fig. 12. These bearings members 16 are connected with the upper leg sections 15 by cylindrical couplings 17 screw-threaded on their exterior at top and bottom, and having an intervening or central annular rib 17al forming stops for both the bearing members and the upper leg sections.

Upon t-he upper leg sections 15 and preferably made integral therewith are guardplates 18, curved to conform to the curvature of the abdominal or hip section 2 and coming closely adjacent to said section 2, but not in frictional contact therewith. These guard plates 18, are of a size to overlap and completely cover the openings 14 in the lower section 2 in all movements of the upper leg sections within such openings.

Around the outer edge of each of the guard-plates 18 I provide a metallic clamping ring 19, which are securely fastened to the guard-plates 1'8 by bolt or screws 19a. lThese clamping rings 19 are rabbeted yat 20 to receivea leather or other suitable packing 21 which fills the rabbeted portions 20 all around and extends outward therefrom in reduced thickness to the outer edges of the clamping rings 19, and between the same and the outer surface of the abdominal and hip section 2 and entirely fills such spaces, thus preventing' the leakage of water between the guard-plates 1 8 andlthe said section 2.

At each side of the abdominal and hip section 2 below the ribs 13 I employ bearing frames 22, the outer edges of which are curved to exactly correspond with the curve of the said section 2. These bearing frames 22 are placed immediately inside the openings 12 in the section 2 and bear against ribs or stops 23 secured to or made integral'with the metal of the section 2.I In that surface fof each of these bearingvframes facing inward is cut a groov'e'24 the entire length'of the frame, which grooves have exactly the' same curvature as' the outer edges of the bearing .frames and consequently the same curvature as the abdominal and hip section 2.

@sasso l The upper and lower surfaces of the grooves 24 are preferably covered .with fiat strips 25 of hardened steel, see Fig. 12.

below the runners-16a `within the grooves;

the outer edges of 2said grooves arelprovided @with lips `27 which reta-in the rollerswithin the grooves when the supportinglrunners 16' "are-.provided with 'trunnions which enter are placedbetween theupper andflo'wer The' `rollers 26 are4 preferably slightly tapered or rounded at their edges lsee'l'j`ii;.f12, and

elongated openings ina curved-iframe 26a on either side which* framesv are connected together at their ends', they rollers vbeing of slightly greater diameterthan the width of the side frames, and the side frames having a curved shape corresponding to the curvature of the grooves 24. These` rollers and these runner frames are,v illustrated lin enlarged size in FigsL 10 and 11. Jlllhe rollers 26 forniy a top' and bottom bearingfor the supporting runners 16a while they in turn have a bearing upon the hardened steel surfaces at the top and bottom of the grooves. To give additional strength to the bearing frames 22 1 provide the braces 27a 27b and 2'?c which 'are preferably made integral with the grooved frame-s 22. The crotch bearing, that is, the bearings for the inner sides of the leg sections, is'made the Same as the side bearing just described, except that the member '22 is made double, that is, provided on .v each sidewith'the grooves 24, and the two sets of rollers 2 6 with their runner-frames 26 in each groove, receiving, between them the supporting runners 16a for the inner sides 'of the right and left leg respectively. 0n each side of this central bearing frame 22 there is a rib or stop 23 attached to the -abdomina and hip section2 by which lat- 'eral movement of the frame 22 is prevented.

llt being lnecessary for the occupant of the arinor to" straddle this entral bearing, the braces 2'?a 27 and 27 are 4dispensed with and thetop surface vof the bearing. is rounded at the edges, While 'in lieu of thebraces spacedA Anplartholes .are bored through the frame 22 to bottoni into which are passed 'screws'or 4bolts 28 screw-threaded on their, lower ends and which ends screw into screw-, threaded holes'in the bottom of thesection.

2, the'met'allat this point being thickened outwardly forsu'ch purpose. The 'heads of, `the screws -orbolts 2 8 are `counter-sunkinz theraxne22 so that` the top of this frame, may present afsmooth surface to the occujlt pant. These screws or bolts 28 are onl'yinserted after all adjustment 'of parte has and thereby lessen the friction between the land. 'a'djustedy the side openings 22 areY inclined correspondingly vto the in.- clined surface of the ribs 13 and between the ends of the frames 22 and the under surface of the ribs 13, adjustable wedges 29 are inserted, by .which means the joints may b e adjusted to accommodate them tothe water pressure at varying depths. That is to say the waterpressure upon the' guard-plates 18 will vary at different depths and affect the compression of the packing 21 and frictional 75 `Contact of the same with the abdominal and hipsection 2 to a greater or less extent" accordingly, and the object of the wedges 29 is to relieve the compression on the packing 21 same and the said section 2 when the water pressure is of too great force.

yThe wedges 29 are rendered adjustable by the following means. Lugs 30 are formed upon the respective ends of the bearing frames 22 at such distance from the outer edges of such frames as to come in front of 'and closelyadjacent tothe front edge of the ribs 13 when the parts are assembled.- These lugs each have a screw-threaded hole into which is passed a bolt 31 preferably provided with a square-head and Screw threaded on that portion within lthe hole in the lug and meshing with the screw thread therein. The other end of the bolt is without screw thread and is providedwith an annular recess or groove 32. This end of the bolt passes into a hole in the'end of the wedge 29, and is revolubly retained therein by a pin 33 which passes through the side of the 100 wedge and enters the recess or groove 32 in the end of the bolt. A lock nut 34 is prefer- `ably provided for each bolt to hold the vsame in the position to which the wedge may be y adjusted. lt will readily be seen that by forcing the wedges 29 between the end of the bearing frames 22 and the ribs 13 by means of the bolts 31 the frames 22 will be forced downward, and carry with them all .the parts of the upper -leg sections and consequently relieve the pressure upon the packing 21 or vice versa.

If desired, cap pieces 22c may be employed at the ends of the frames 22, said caps having tenons 22d to fit into the grooves in 115 said frames, so that the wedgesl 29 may have a solid bearing surface; and also if so desired the wedges 29 may have lips 29a see Figs. 3 and 7 'along their upper'a-nd lower longitudinal edges Whichglips rwill f1toverl 120 the edges of thefends of the frames and `prevent any side-wise ,movementA of cthe Tw/edges; andin this jcase therejmay` be- AAAcross-g'roo'ves `providedin 4the ribs 13` to ref ceivelthe projecting lips on` the upper. vpart lof the wedges. z v

. After all .the parts are properly assembled I 12 are vclosed b vcover-plate's 35, which are secured 7 to the abdominal and hip section V2 by bolts 130 being a suitable packin 36, a suitable packing intervening to render the joint water-tight.. It is preferable that the metal composing these cover-plates 35 be ribbed to give additional strength to these parts.

I-Iaving thus fully described the construction of the hip joints, I would say that the same description is applicable to the joint-s Wedges 29 and ribs 13; t-he ends of the bearing frames 22 in such cases being made to fit and bear against the extended portion of the metal of the armor as shown in Fig. 23. I will now describe thosc features of my invention which provide for lengthening and shortening the limb sections so that the armor may be adapted to divers of different stature. j I The upper leg sections 15 have upon the-ir interior surface at a suitable distance from their lower Iends a screw-threaded portion 37. Theleg sections 38 above the knees are of smaller diameter than the sections 15 so as to telescope or be capable of vertical or revoluble movement therein, and upon the outer surface of the sections 38 for thel greater part' of that portion within the sections' 15 there is provided a screw-thread 39 which meshes with the interior screw threads 37 on the sections 15, thus allowing the length of the leg sections between the hips and knees to be lengthened or shortened, and if desired, a scale may be marked on the parts to assist in accurate adjustment. A vertical groove or recess 40 is cut on the opposite sides of each section 38, which grooves extend the ent-ire length of the threaded portions, and when` the sections 15 and 38 are adjusted in the desired relation `to each other, they are locked in such position by set--screws 37a which pass through holes in'the sections 15 and enter the grooves 40 in the sections 38. See Figs. 3 and 6.

The lower ends of the'sections 15 are exteriorly screw-threaded, and packing rings 41 are provided which screw upon such screw-threaded ends of the sections 15, there 42 between the rings 41 and the lower en of the sections 15, which packing also extends between the ring 41 and the outer surface of the section 38, thus rendering these telescopic connections water-tight. This extensible arrangement isL provided between the knees and 4ankles and 'also in t-he arm sections, and the construction being alike in all these places,

further.' .description is unnecessary, and the formed is thickened on the outside of the leg openings,y and the outer surfaces of these sections are screw-threaded. A comparatively deep annular recess 47 lis formed in the upper part of each of these lower leg sections 4 5 which recesses extend from the wall 46a thereof all the`4 way across the top of the sections 45. At a point slightly distant from its leg openings in each of the sections 45, an annular recess 46 is formed. Within these recesses 46 and secured to. the bottom thereof are flat strips of hardened steel forming annular bearing rings 48. Rollers 49 preferably tapered to follow a true circle, are placed within the recesses 46 and rest upon the bearing rings 48. Spacer rings 50 having projections or lugs 51 which come between the rollers 49 keep the rollers in regular spaced apart order. These spacer rings 50 are preferably of hardened steel. These spacer rings and rollers are plainly illustrated in enlarged size in Figs. 10, 19, 20 and 21.

The outer portion of the leg section`44 at its lower end is stepped forming shoulder 52 and 53 and is provided with screw threa` s for a short distance above the shoulder 52. A ring section 54 interiorly screw-threaded surrounds this portion ofthe leg sections 44, the screw threads on each vmeshing together, while the bottom of the ring 54 rests upon the upper shoulder 52. This ring 54 is undercut on its outerl surface forming an annular recess 55 see Fig. 18 of peculiar shape. Flat hardened steel rings 53a rest` uponthe shoulders 53.l The outside cylindrical members 56 extend the full width of the joints and are interiorly screw-threaded to mesh with the screw-threads on the outer surfaces of the leg sections 45, above which point they are provided with an interior angular projection 57, the extreme inner portion of which comes closely adjacent to that portion of the leg sections 44 between the shoulders 52 and 53 while they are recessedat a point registering with the shoulders 53, in which recess is a hardened steel ring 58 and into the space thus formed between the two rings 53a and. 58 are placed steel balls 59, which have bearing upon said rings. These balls may be spaced apart in any suitable-manner, `but Iv prefer to c mploy revoluble rings 61a provlded with .110 hereafter described. line with the shoulder 52 this inwardly pro'- spaced apart holes into which the balls are contained and revolve, similar to the rings At a point on "a jecting portion of the member 56 is provided with a corresponding shoulder 60 and within the recess formed by these shouldersI is placed a packing 'ring 61. .Beginning at a point on a line with the upper surface of this packing ring 61 the inner surface of the member 56 is inclined upwardly to a point Y on aline with the undercut in the ring 54, above which inclined portion is another shoulder v6()a from which point the member 56 is screw-threaded to its top.

Within the recess formed between the inclined portions of the melnber 56 and the ring 54 which recess is somewhat Y-shaped in cross sect-ion is placed a packing 62 cupshapedin cross section and within this cupshaped packing is placed a presser ring 63.` This ring is formed ofa flat circular strip of spring metal notched along the edges and those portions between the notches turned slightly upward. These portions press againstthe inner sides of the cup-shaped packing and force them outwardly in contact with the sides of the recess. This presser ring is illustrated more clearly in Figj22; The packings 62 acting in conjunction with the packing ring 61 upon which they rest, eflectually render these swivel joints watertight. A

After the parts described have been assembled the top ring 64 is screwed into place when it rests upon the shoulder 60n of the member 56 while the broad annular flange 64a upon said ring 64 extends over the top surface of the ring 54. r1`he short lugs 65 taking against the stops 66 limit the movement von each side. The upper arm sections 67 are stepped' on their outer circumference forming annular shoulders 68, 69 and 70, the shoulder 68 being extended upwardly forming the annular flanges 68a. The surface of these arm sections between the shoulders 68 and 69 isprovided with screw threads; that portion between the shoulders 69 and 70 being plain and smooth, while that portion extending inwardly from the shoulders 70 is screw-,threaded to the point where these arm sections enter the sockets 10; Upon these screw-threaded pory tions of the arm sections67. are screwed vshoulders 72a and 72b.

hardened steel rings 7l having an annular thickened rib or projection 71a.

The cylindrical members 72 are of a diameter to fit lsnuglywithin the shoulder sockets l0, and their inner ends rest against Vthe flanges 11 of said sockets. Thesevmem bers 72 are' stepped on the interior leaving annular shoulders 72a 72b and 72c and are provided with -a"screwthread between the l Between' these members 7-2 and the steel rings 71-there is propacer ring 85.

vided the ring member 73 having flanges 7 3a which contact with the shoulders 7 2a of the members 72 and are screw-threaded to mesh with the screw-threads on the members 72. The outer ends of these members 73 do not reach as far as the shoulders 72b upon the members 72 thus leaving an annular space between the outer ends of the member- 73 andthe shoulder 72J on the member 72. Within 'these annular spaces are bearing balls or rollers 75 and hardened steelrings 76 intervene between vthese rollers 75 and the surface of the member 72. The rollers 75 have a bearing onone side against the steel flanges 71a of the rings 71 and on the other side against ithe rings 76.' 4Another and larger annular recess is formed between the outer surface ofv the lower portion of the member 73, and the inner surface of the flange 71a on the ring 71.

Flat but slightly tapered hardened steel rings 79 are secured to the outer surface of the members 73 and between the same and the inner surface of these flanges 71a on the ring 71, which are also slightly tapered, and

having a bearing on such surfaces are placedsteel rollers 80 tapered to follow a true cntvcle; these rollers are to be separated one from the other in any. suitable manner but preferably by a ring81 provided with projections coming between the rollers such. as the rings 50 before described in connectlon with the lower leg joint illustrated in en.- larged size in Fig. 18. A similar bearing is provided in the vannular space between the outer surface of the flange 71L and the shoulder 72c on the member 72, by means of the Jflat steel ring 83,the steel rollers 84 and the A recess for packing, which recess is somewhat Y-shaped in cross section is formed between the ring section 88 and the ring section 74 which is screwed to the section 87.

Within this recess is placed a leather or other suitable packing ring 89 and upon this packing ring is placed another packing strip l90 cup-shaped in cross section, and withm this cup-shaped packing is placed a presser! ring 91, all similar to those before described and illustrated in enlarged size in Fig. 18. 'i After the parts described havebeen assembled within the shoulder sockets 10, the locking rings 92 are screwed into the shoulder sockets 10 down upon' the shoulders 93 of the cylindrical members 72, and to provide against any possibility of these locking rings 92 working loose, make use'of'the setscrews`94 which pass through holes in the flanges 923011 the'lodlring rings 92 and enter" screw-threaded holes in the metal of the sections 1 and 3. Any desired number of these set-screws 94 may be employed at spaced apart distances aroundf the flanges 92a. 1

prefer! that `the screw-thread `upon thesevlocking ,rings i 92l have intervening blank spaces as shown in Fig. 16 and that the screw-threads on the sockets 10 be of like character, so that the locking rings can be quickly positioned and the parts locked by a'fraction of a turn. Lugs 95 upon the inner ends of the upper arm sections 67 limit the swing of the arms by coming in contact with the stops 96. See Fig. 2.. The tubular 'cylindrical ends ofthe lower arm sections 97 are' interiorly screw-threaded between the shoulders 98 and 99 and on those portions below the shoulders '99. A flanged tubular section 100 eXteriorly screw.threaded' to mesh with the screw-thread on each arm section 97 is screwed into place with its'top in contact with the shoulder 98 on the armsection 97. A ring 101 of a depth to fit between the shoulder 99 on each arm section 97 and the ends of such sections, and eXteriorly screw-threaded to mesh with the screw-thread on such portions of the arm section 97- and of such width that its inner circumference coincides with that part of the flanged section 100 having the largest inner diameter, is screwed into position on each arm section 97. Upon both the upper and lower surfaces of the flanges 100a of the sections 100 and recessed therein is secured hardened steel rings 102.

The' tubular cylindrical sections 103 have inner shoulders 104, and outer shoulders 105 and 106. Below the shoulders 106 the outside diameter is reduced for a certain distance and then again reduced for a shorter distance to its lower end, and this portion of smallest diameter at the end is exteriorly screw-threaded.. These tubular cylindrical sections 103 are also eXteriorly screw-threaded for a short distance immediately above the shoulders 105, and onto these screw-threaded portions are screwed rings 107 interiorly screw-threaded for such prpose., Upon the tops of these rings 107 and secured thereto are flat rings 108 'of har# dened steel, and in the annular recesses between these steel rings and the steel rings 102, on the under surfaces of the flanges 100l are steel balls 109, which are preferably carried in rings 110, there being spaced holes in said rings which are drilled slightly larger -than the diameter of the balls, and

slightly swaged after the balls are introduced to keep the balls in place. The balls projecting through the rings on either side.

Head sections 111 having a tubular cylindrical portion 111 exteriorly screw-threaded to mesh with the screw threads -on the in- 'terior of the sections 103 are provided and 4interior shoulders 104 of the section 103.

On'the under surfaces and adjacent the ends 4 of the flanges 111. of'the sections 111 are secured hardened steel rings 112. and between these rings 112 and the steel rings 102 on the i tops of the iianges 100a 'of the sections 100 are steel balls 113 carried in a ring 113a in a similar manner to the rings 110 before described. There is an annular projection 114 exteriorly screw-threaded upon the top of each section 111, to which are screwed the frames 115; the base of. these frames are ring-shaped and interiorly screw-threaded to mesh with the screw-threads on the pro- 'such as before described, that is, flat rings 117 of leather or other suitable material; rings 118 cup-shaped in cross section and spring presser rings 119` which prevent the entrance of water at these points. Attac-hed to the lower part of the sections 103 by screw-thread connection are the tubular cylindrical sections 120 exteriorly screwthreaded below their undercut heads 120? and bearing against these undercut heads there are gripper supporting frames 121, consisting of horizontal arms having ringshaped centers interiorly screw-threaded to mesh with thescrew-threads on the sections 120, the ends of these horizontal arms being curved downwardly and having right-angled branches 1,21a of bowed form with bolt holes at their lower ends. Ring nuts 122 are screwed up against the under surfaces of the horizontal arms to further secure them in position.

Hollow cylindrical end sections 123 interiorly screw-threaded are screwed upon the exteriorly screw-threaded portions of the sections 120. There are central circular openings through these end sections 123 and also through the head-pieces 111 which openings are of corresponding circumference and intrue alinement. Round steel rods 124 of a diameter to slide up 'and down and revolve without undue friction are placed within these openings and project for predetermined distances both above and below the sections 111 and 123. The upper ends of these rods 124 are provided with handles 124g. These handles may be secured to the rods by screws as shown or in anyother suitable manner.

The lower ends of the rods 124 are screwt-hreaded and are screwed into interiorly screw-threaded hubs of bowed frames 125, (see Fig. 14) the lower ends of which are provided with bolt holes which receive the bolts 126, which are shouldered against the inside of the frames and retained in position by nuts 127 on the outside of said frame. These 'bolts 126 pass through elongated openings 128 in the'upper ends of inwardly curved gripper fingers 129 which are pivotally mounted upon the bolts 13() on the frames 121 which bolts are provided with end nuts 131. The curvature's of the gripper fingers on the oppositely positioned bolts face each other andthe fingers are separated one frbm the other on each bolt the desireddistance apartl by suitable inter-- vening washers 132. 4

'A helical spring 133 surrounds the rods 124 `within the tubular sections 1,03 and 111, the lower ends of these springs taking against a fixed collar 134 on the rods 124 while their upper ends bear against the under surfaces of the head sections 111. Stops 135 securely fixed to the rods 124 above 'die head sections ,111., limit the downward movement of the rods and consequently the ,out-

ward throw of the gripper fingers 129. The cross bars 115b form a. rest for the palms ofthe natural hands of the occupant of the armor and at the same time permit his fingers to grasp the handles 124a by which he may operate the mechanism in either direction and be able to grasp-an object by the gripping fingers 129 and retain the same. The stufiing boxes receive a soft packing material 137 by which water is-pr'evented from entering naround the rods 124 at their lower parts.

136 are followers acting upon the pac-king.

4"When the diver pulls up the rods 124, the springs -133 are compressed, Aand the ends of the oppositely disposed gripper fingers are brought toward each other, and it is preferable that they be so positioned as to allow the ends of the fingers to slightly pass between those opposite, which will en able the diver to grasp a smaller article than if the oppositely disposed fingers met at their ends. When the diver loosens his grasp on the handles 124a the springs 133" eXpa-nd'and force the rods 124 downward,

thus causingl the outward throw of 'the gripper fingers 129 by lthe action ofthe bolts 126 inthe elongated -openings 128 in the upper ends ofV said grippers; this outward throw ofth o grippers being limited by the stop 135.` ff i v The springs 133 will be-made of various sizes .or strength according tothe depth of water to be' worked in, that is, of suiiicient tension to overcome the water pressure,.fric

,tionfof packing and'. a surplus tension to automaticallyforce down lthe rods 124 and causev a full'opening of the gripper fingers when'f-thediverf 'releases his. grip on the handles. Thegripper fingers maybe varied as to size and shape if desired.

On the stomach section of the armorthere is 'aoss 1381prferably fianged ,for the re-` cepti nlof a casing orvholder 139 for electric,

lamps. This holder 139 may be vof' any desired shape, but I prefer to make it of rectangular shape as shown, having a rear flange for attachement to the boss 138 by bolts or otherwise and provided with trans verse ribs 140 which form a support for the front glass or glasses 141v which must be of suiiicient thickness to withstand the pressures to which it may be subjected. The transverse ribs also act to strengthen the casing. The holder 139 is provided at the front edge with a flange to which the frame 139a which holds the glass in posit-ion is attached by bolts. A suitable bushing with proper insulation is fixedin an opening-142 in the armor behind the holder 139 forl the passage of the 'electric conductors, which enter the armor through a suitable bushing 143 at the back of the shoulders An attachment for hose connection is indicated in Figs. 1 and 2 at 144, and 145 illusf trates a swinging attachment connected to the shoulders of the suit for the hoist rope 1455*. A boss or flanged portion 142a is provided on the back of the armor for the attachment of a casing 142b tocontain a pumpl (not shown). The bottoms of the shoes o1' feet sections 146v are preferably weighted to assistv in maintaining the equilibrium. The metal comprising the ribs 13 may be cut awa-y betweenthose portions forming bearings for the wedges 29Y if desired, thereby giving additional space at s-uch points within the armor. .The diverienters the armor before the upper sections are united to the abdominal section,.and by my peculiar construction of joints, thediver can readily occupy the leg and feet sections without sepa# rating any of those sections from each other.

l claim as my invention:

1. An armor for submarine divers, comprising jointed sections whichA permit natural movements to the limbs of the diver, and means for lengthening or shortening such sections so that they may be accom` inodated to, divers of different stature.

2Q An armor for submarine divers, comprising jointed sections which permit natural movements to the limbs of the diver, and means for adjusting the joints to vary the frictional contact of the parts'to com- 115 pensate the pressure of water at varying depths.

3.14m armor .for submarine divers, comprising jointed sections which permit natural movements to'thelimbs of the diver,` 120 `means for lengthening' or shortening such section-s, and means for adjusting the joints to vary the frictional contact of the parts to compensate pressure of water at varying depths. j 125 4. An armor for submarine divers, com- 1 prising jointedsections which-permit natu-V Aral 'movements to the limbs ofthe diver, and

incombination, means for lengthening or shorten-ing'such jointed sections, and means 130 for locking the same in the positions to which they may be adjusted.

5. An armor for submarine divers, having jointed sections which permit natural movements to the limbs of the diver, and in combination means for adjusting the joints -to vary the frictional contact of the parts to compensate the pressure of water at varying depths, and means for maintaining the adjustment.

6. An armor for submarine divers, comprising jointed sections which permit natural movements to the limbs of the diver, and in combination, means for lengthening or shortening such sections, means for locking the same in the adjusted positions, means for adjusting the joints to vary the frictional contact of the parts to compensate the pressure of water at varying depths, and means for maintaining the adjustment.

7. An armor for submarine divers, comprising jointed sections which ermit natural movements to the limbs of t e diver, the sections between the joints telescoping and the outer sections |being interiorly screwthreaded and the inner sections exterior-ly.

screw-threaded to mesh. with the screw threads of the outer sections whereby lthe limb sections may be lengthen'ed or shortened, and means for securing the sections in the positions to which they may be so adjusted.

8. An armor for submarine divers, comprising jointed sections which permit natural movements to the limbs of the diver, the sections between the joints telescoping, the outer sections being interiorly screw-threaded and the inner sections eXteriorly screw-threaded to mesh with the screw threads of the outer sections, whereby the limb sections may be 4lengthened or shortened, means for securing the sections in the positions to which they may be so adjusted, and means for preventing the leakage of waterv between such sections.

9. In an armor for submarine divers, and in combination, jointed sections which permit natural movements to the limbs of the diver, means for adjusting the' joints of such in combination with the under part of the lower body section, having two spaced apart elongated openings, of three bearing frames and said central bearing frame having a correspondingly curved groove on each side thereof, means for maintaining said bearing frames in their respective positions, tubular cylindrical sections, one of which extends through each of said elongated openings, each of said tubular cylindrical sect-ions having curved right-angled projections at the top on each side, which projections enter the curved grooves in said bearing frames and are slidable therein, and spaced apart rollers within each of said grooves both above and below such right-angled projections providing a top and bottom bearing therefor.

l1. In an armor for submarine divers and in combination with the under part of the lower body section, having two spaced apart elongated openings, of three bearing frames within such body section, one being at either side of such section and the third extending across the center from front to rear thereof, said side bearing frames each having a correspondingly curved groove in its inner face, and said central bearing frame having a correspondingly curved groove on each side thereof, ribs upon the bottom of said body section upon which said bearing frames bear and by which they are held from lateral movement, projections upon the said body section at the front and back thereof at predetermined points above the top ends of said bearing frames, adjustable wedges between such projections andthe top'ends of the bearing frames, tubular cylindrical sections, one of which extends through each of the elongated openings in the bottom of the body section, each ofs-aid tubularcylindrical 'sections having curved right angled projectionsy at the top on each side which projections enter the curved grooves in said bearing frames and are slidable therein, andv rollers within each of said grooves upon which said projections have a bearing.

l12. In an armor for submarine `divers and in combination with a Vbottom body section curved from front to rear and having two spaced apart elongated openings therein, of three bearing frames withinsaid body section, one being at either side thereof and the third extending acrossthe' center from,

front to rear, saidside bearing fra-mes each having a correspondingly curved groove in its inner face and said central bearing frame having a correspondingly curved groove on each side thereof, side bearings for said frames upon the interior surface of the bottom of said body section, projections upon the interior surface of said body section at the front .and back at predetermined points above the top ends of each of said bearing frames, adjustable wedges between such projections and the top ends of the bearing frames,'tubular cylindrical sections, one. of which extends through each of the elongated openings in the bottom of the body section, each of said tubular cylindrical sections having curved right angled projections at the top on each side, whiclr projections enter the curved grooves in said bearing frames and are slidable therein, rollers within each of said grooves upon which said projections have a bearing, a guard plate upon eachy of said tubular cylindrical sections at a point out-side said body section but closely adjacent thereto, said guardplates being of curved form corresponding to the curvature of `the body section, and means for prevent` ing the leakage of water between said guard-plates and said body section.

13. ln an armor for submarine divers and in combination with a bottom body section curved from front to rear, having two spaced apart elongated openings therein, of three bearing frames within said body section, one being at either side thereof and the third extending across the center from front to rear, said side bearing frames each having a correspondingly curved groove in its inner' face, and said central bearing frame having a correspondingly curved groove on each side thereof, side bearings for said frames upon the interior surface of the bottom of said body section, projections upon the interior surface of said body section at the front andv back at predetermined c points above the top ends of each of said bearingframes, adjustable Wedges between such projections and the top ends of the bearing frames, tubular cylindrical sections, one of which extends through each of the elongated openings in the-bottom of the body section, each of said tubular cylindrical sections having curved right angled projections at the top on each side, which projections enter the curved grooves in said bearing frames and are slidable therein,

.rollers within each of said grooves upon which said projections have a bearing, a guard plate upon each of said tubular cylindrical sections at a point outside lsaid body ,section but closely adjacent thereto, said guard plates being of curved form corresponding to the curvature of the body section, clamping rings secured to the guard plates around their outer edges, such clamping rings being rabbeted, and a packing material within which such rabbeted parts eX- tending outward therefrom in reduced thickness to the outer edges of the clamping rings and bearing against the outer surface of the body section. l

14. In an armor for submarine divers and in combination with a cylindrical body and tubular cylindrical limb sections with articulate connection between theV body and leg sect-ions, of knee, ankle and elbow joints, each of such joints comprising in combination., two meeting sections, the upper one of said sections having a curved bottom and an elongated opening therein, bearing frames within such section, one at each side thereof and each provided with a curved groove in its inner face, bearings upon the interior surface of the bottom of the curved section for said frames, the lower one of said meeting sections extending through the said elongated opening in the upper section and having curved right angled projections at the top on each side which projections enter the curved grooves in said bearing frames and are slidable therein, rollers within each of said grooves forming bearings for said projections, a guard-plate upon said lower section at a point outside the upper section but closely adjacent thereto, said guard-plate being of curved form ycorresponding to the curvature of the bottom of the upper section, and means for preventing the leakage of water between said guardplate and said upper section.

l5. In an armor for submarine divers, the combination with the body, leg, foot and arm members having articulated connecting sections, of swivel joints located between the knee and ankle joints, comprising in combi nation, upper and lower tubular cylindrical ing rollers in said annular grooves, spacer rings separating said bearing rollers one from the other, outer ring sections screwed to the said lower sections and having inwardly projecting iianges, bearing balls between said flanges and the lower annuw lar shoulders on said upper sections, top ring sections screwed into the said outer sections above the flanges thereon, ring sections screwed upon the said upper sections above the top annular shoulders thereon leaving annular recesses between the same and the inner surfaces of the flanges on said outer ring sections, and a packing within such annular recesses.

16. In an armor for submarine divers, the combination with the body, leg and foot members having articulated connecting sections, of connections for the arm sections to the body member, comprising in combination, sockets upon the body member, one at each side thereof project-ing inwardly and having inturned flanges on their inner ends, said sockets being partially interiorly screw-threaded, arm sections stepped on their outer circumference forming annular shoulders thereon, steel rings (71) having an annular projection (71a) and screwedto the arm sections, cylindrical members (72) whose inner circumferences it within the said sockets with their inner edges resting against the flanges thereon, said cylindrical members having outer'shoulders near their inne-r ends and interior annular shoulders and screw-threaded between two of the inner shoulders, ring-members (73) havin flanges which Contact with the inner shoulders on said cylindrical members, and which are screw-threaded to said members, bearing rollers between the said cylindrical inembers and the annular projections on said rings (71) and bearing upon the periphery thereof, steel rollers on either side of the projections upon the said steel rings and forming bearings between said projections and the cylindrical members and also between said projections and the flanges of the said ring member (73), a packing to prevent leakage of water between the parts, and locking rlngs screwing into thesockets around the outer surfaces` of said cylindrical .members and .contacting with the outer shoulders on said members. I

17. -In an armor for submarine divers, the

connecting sections, of tubular cylindricalsections within the open Iends of. the forearm sections,.bal1 bearings for the same, rods passing centrally through said tubular cylindrical sections, handles upon the ends of said rods within the fore-arm sections, gripf per fingers exterior of the fore-arm sections and pivotally connected with the ends of said rods and by which they are operated, springs within the said tubular cylindrical sections bearing against the upper one of said sect-ions at their tops, collars lixed to said rods and forming a bearing for the lower ends of said springs, and packings for preventing the leakage of water into the fore-arm sections.

Signed by me this first day of December

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2433768 *May 29, 1942Dec 30, 1947Goodrich Co B FInflatable suit
US2632574 *Dec 16, 1949Mar 24, 1953Goertz Raymond CRemote-control manipulator
US3398980 *Sep 20, 1965Aug 27, 1968Lockheed Aircraft CorpSwivel joint
US3777309 *Mar 15, 1972Dec 11, 1973Yeager WSafety garment structure
Classifications
Cooperative ClassificationA41D7/003